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Maternal effect genes produce mRNA or proteins that accumulate in the egg during oogenesis. We show here that Mater, a mouse oocyte protein dependent on the maternal genome, is essential for embryonic development beyond the two-cell stage. Females lacking the maternal effect gene Mater are sterile. Null males are fertile.
MATER (Maternal Antigen That Embryos Require) is an ooplasm-specific protein first identified as an antigen (OP1) associated with ovarian autoimmunity in mice. Its primary structure has been deduced from full-length cDNA that encodes a 125-kDa protein required for progression of the mouse embryo beyond two cells. Expression of the gene encoding MATER is(More)
The mammalian zona pellucida surrounding ovulated eggs mediates sperm binding at fertilization, provides a postfertilization block to polyspermy, and facilitates passage of pre-implantation embryos down the oviduct. Although the three zona proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3) are well conserved, mammalian fertilization is relatively specific and human sperm do not bind(More)
Autoimmune premature ovarian failure causes young women to develop menopausal symptoms and infertility. A similar syndrome appears in mice with postthymectomy autoimmune premature ovarian failure. We demonstrate that these mice develop antibodies against a 125-kDa protein located in the oocyte cytoplasm (ooplasm). By screening a mouse ovarian complementary(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Loose agglomerates Breakage Discrete element method Fine particles This paper presents a numerical study of the breakage of loose agglomerates based on the discrete element method. Agglomerates of fine mannitol particles were impacted with a target wall at different velocities and angles. It was observed that the agglomerates(More)
BACKGROUND Mater is a maternal effect gene required for early embryonic development in mice, and its protein serves as an autoantigen in a mouse model of autoimmune premature ovarian failure. METHODS Human MATER cDNA was cloned by PCR techniques. The mRNA and protein were determined using hybridization and immunodetection respectively. The cDNA and(More)
FMR1 premutation (PM) alleles have 55-200 CGG·CCG-repeats in their 5' UTR. PM carriers are at risk of fragile X-associated tremor and ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Females are also at risk for FX primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). PM pathology is generally attributed to deleterious properties of transcripts with long CGG-tracts. For FXPOI, hormone changes(More)
We reported previously that Mater is a maternal effect gene that is required for early embryonic development beyond the two-cell stage in mice. Here we show the expressional profile of Mater and its protein during oogenesis and embryogenesis as well as its subcellular localization in oocytes. Mater mRNA was detectable earliest in oocytes of type 2(More)
Keywords: Powder dispersion Impact angle Agglomerates Computational fluid dynamics Discrete element method a b s t r a c t This paper numerically investigated the mechanisms of powder de-agglomeration on mechanical impaction, aiming to explain the experimental observations in our previous study (Adi et al., 2010). A numerical model based on a coupled(More)
More than 75 000 man-made chemicals contaminate the environment; many of these have not been tested for toxicities. These chemicals demand quantitative high-throughput screening assays to assess them for causative roles in neurotoxicities, including Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. To facilitate high throughput screening for(More)