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Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a member of the heat-shock protein 70 family. We evaluated the expression of GRP78 using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry in tumor tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues from 180 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. The associations between the expression levels of GRP78, clinicopathological(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most highly malignant tumors with a very poor prognosis. In addition to the cancer cells, the stroma of tumor can expand by 50% and influence cancer cell growth. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are important components of tumor stroma. Cancer cells, normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells as(More)
BACKGROUND Interactions of inflammatory cells with pancreatic cancer cells play crucial roles in pancreatic cancer, however the dynamic changes of inflammatory cell populations in pancreatic cancerogensis and after chemotherapy have not been well eclucidated. The combinational use of aspirin and atrovastatin (Lipitor) have been widely prescribled for(More)
Pancreatic cancer is characterized as inflammatory malignancy with a dismal prognosis. There is abundant intratumoral infiltration of macrophages, and most of these tumor associated macrophages (TAM) are induced to be M2 phenotype. The M2 polarized TAM has been demonstrated to promote progression and induce chemo-resistance of pancreatic cancer. Interleukin(More)
Interactions between pancreatic cancer cells and inflammatory cells play crucial roles in the biological behavior of pancreatic cancer. Abundant infiltration of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive plasma cells in the pancreas is the most significant feature of autoimmune pancreatitis; however, the clinical significance of IgG4-positive plasma cell(More)
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare tumor associated with poor prognosis, thus early preoperative recognition and surgical resection are critical. However, because of a lack of definitive diagnostic markers and typical clinical features, it is difficult to diagnose this disease in its early stages and it is often misdiagnosed as parathyroid adenoma.(More)
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