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The medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza produces various tanshinone diterpenoids that have pharmacological activities such as vasorelaxation against ischemia reperfusion injury and antiarrhythmic effects. Their biosynthesis is initiated from the general diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate by sequential reactions catalyzed by copalyl(More)
Salinity is a major abiotic stress factor limiting crop production. To generate salt-tolerant turf and forage, we had transformed tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report that overexpression of the AtNHX1 gene confers enhanced salt tolerance to the transformed(More)
Triterpenes are one of the largest classes of plant metabolites and have important functions. A diverse array of triterpenoid skeletons are synthesized via the isoprenoid pathway by enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene. The genomes of the lower plants Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and moss (Physcomitrella patens) contain just one oxidosqualene cyclase(More)
Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from flower buds of Cynara cardunculus has been used to prepare a cDNA library. Screening of the cDNA after expression of cloned DNA with antibodies raised against the large subunit of cyprosin 3 resulted in the isolation of six positive clones. One of these clones (cypro1s; a 1.7 kb Eco RI fragment) codes for cyprosin. The nucleotide(More)
Chemical mutagenesis is routinely used to create large numbers of rare mutations in plant and animal populations, which can be subsequently subjected to selection for beneficial traits and phenotypes that enable the characterization of gene functions. Several next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target enrichment methods have been developed for the(More)
The glycinin gene family encoding the glycinin subunits in soybean plants is composed of at least five gene members. A genomic clone lambda S312 containing the Gy4 gene from a genomic library of cv. Forrest was isolated and partially characterized. The organization of this gene was found to be similar to that of a null allele from cv. Raiden, but different(More)
Spinach thylakoids, grana vesicles, stroma lamellae vesicles and also isolated cytochrome bf complex, were analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis employing isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. About 100 thylakoid membrane proteins were(More)
Plant aspartic proteinases (APs) have been isolated from several seed and leaf sources but the only well characterized enzymes from flowers are cardosins and cyprosins from cardoon, Cynara cardunculus L. Here we report a full-length cDNA clone encoding an AP named cenprosin from the flowers of Centaurea calcitrapa L., a thistle related to cardoon. As found(More)
Two hisD-unlinked genes NifC5 and NifC7 are mapped in the chromosome of K. pneumoniae. The sequence of NifC5 and NifC7 is suggested as NifC5--gltB--NifC7--argG. The P1 infected E. coli lysate can transduce the mutant C-7 to be Nif+ transductant, yet fails to transduce the hisD-linked nif mutants to be Nif+ ones. This indicates that the gene encoding C-7 is(More)