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Salinity is a major abiotic stress factor limiting crop production. To generate salt-tolerant turf and forage, we had transformed tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report that overexpression of the AtNHX1 gene confers enhanced salt tolerance to the transformed(More)
The medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza produces various tanshinone diterpenoids that have pharmacological activities such as vasorelaxation against ischemia reperfusion injury and antiarrhythmic effects. Their biosynthesis is initiated from the general diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate by sequential reactions catalyzed by copalyl(More)
Plant aspartic proteinases (APs) have been isolated from several seed and leaf sources but the only well characterized enzymes from flowers are cardosins and cyprosins from cardoon, Cynara cardunculus L. Here we report a full-length cDNA clone encoding an AP named cenprosin from the flowers of Centaurea calcitrapa L., a thistle related to cardoon. As found(More)
Triterpenes are one of the largest classes of plant metabolites and have important functions. A diverse array of triterpenoid skeletons are synthesized via the isoprenoid pathway by enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene. The genomes of the lower plants Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and moss (Physcomitrella patens) contain just one oxidosqualene cyclase(More)
Spinach thylakoids, grana vesicles, stroma lamellae vesicles and also isolated cytochrome bf complex, were analysed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis employing isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. About 100 thylakoid membrane proteins were(More)
Chemical mutagenesis is routinely used to create large numbers of rare mutations in plant and animal populations, which can be subsequently subjected to selection for beneficial traits and phenotypes that enable the characterization of gene functions. Several next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target enrichment methods have been developed for the(More)
An open reading frame upstream from nifHDK operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae had been described. The orientation of this open reading frame is opposite to that of nifHDK and sequence homology was found between the open reading frame promoter and the promoter of nifHDK operon. A recombinant plasmid carrying the promoter region of the open reading frame fused(More)