The purpose of this study was to evaluate 10 process-based terrestrial biosphere models that were used for the IPCC fifth Assessment Report. The simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) is compared with flux-tower-based estimates by Jung et al. [Journal of Geophysical Research 116 (2011) G00J07] (JU11). The net primary productivity (NPP) apparent… (More)
Zhang et al. (1) report that the green-up dates in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) have continuously advanced from 1982 to 2011. They retrieved green-up dates from the multian-nual time-series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using the method proposed by Piao et al. (2). This method assumes that the nongrowing season NDVI values remain constant… (More)
Well-defined conjugated polymers in confined geometries are challenging to synthesize and characterize, yet they are potentially useful in a broad range of organic optoelectronic devices such as transistors, light emitting diodes, solar cells, sensors, and nanocircuits. Herein we report a systematic study of optoelectrical properties, grafting density… (More)
A conducting diblock copolymer of PS-b-P3HT was added to serve as a compatibilizer in a P3HT/PCBM blend, which improved the power-conversion efficiency from 3.3% to 4.1% due to the enhanced crystallinity, morphology, interface interaction, and depth profile of PCBM.
Buffer layers that control electrochemical reactions and physical interactions at electrode/film interfaces are key components of an organic photovoltaic cell. Here the structure and properties of layers of semi-rigid poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) chains tethered at a surface are investigated, and these functional systems are applied in an organic… (More)
Nitrogen (N) resorption is a key strategy for conserving N in forests, and is often affected by soil nutrient condition and N sink strength within the plant. However, our understanding of the age-related pattern of N resorption and how increasing N deposition will affect this pattern is limited. Here, we investigated N resorption along a chronosequence of… (More)
Stem respiration is a critical and uncertain component of ecosystem carbon cycle. Few studies reported diurnal change in stem respiration as well as its linkage with climate. In this study, we investigated the diurnal and seasonal change in stem respiration and its linkage with environmental factors, in larch plantations of northern China from 2010 to 2012.… (More)
BACKGROUND Numerous studies examining the relationship between CD44 expression and prognostic impact in patients with osteosarcoma have yielded inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship between CD44 expression and the survival in patients with osteosarcoma. METHODS We therefore conducted a… (More)