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This paper introduces RL-MAC, a novel adaptive MediaAccess Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that employs a reinforcement learning framework. Existing schemes centre around scheduling the nodes' sleep and active periods as means of minimising the energy consumption. Recent protocols employ adaptive duty cycles as means of further(More)
This brief presents an efficient and scalable online learning algorithm for recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The approach is based on the real-time recurrent learning (RTRL) algorithm, whereby the sensitivity set of each neuron is reduced to weights associated with either its input or output links. This yields a reduced storage and computational complexity(More)
PURPOSE Epidemiological studies suggest that dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin is inversely related to the risk for senile cataract. The objectives of this work were to investigate the mechanisms by which these nutrients provide anti-cataract effects. We evaluated their modulation of oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) and their(More)
Large-scale profiling approaches have revealed global down-regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in several human cancer types including breast cancer. Altered expression of Dicer and Drosha, two key enzymes in the miRNA maturation, is believed to be one of the most important mechanisms. By using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QT-PCR), we examined the expression(More)
BACKGROUND Factors responsible for invasive and metastatic progression of prostate cancer (PCa) remain largely unknown. Previously, we reported cloning of prosaposin (PSAP) and its genomic amplification and/or overexpression in several androgen-independent metastatic PCa cell lines and lymph node metastases. PSAP is the lysosomal precursor of saposins,(More)
CD200 is a cell surface glycoprotein that functions through engaging CD200 receptor on cells of the myeloid lineage and inhibits their functions. Expression of CD200 has been implicated in a variety of human cancer cells including melanoma cells and has been thought to play a protumor role. To investigate the role of cancer cell expression of CD200 in tumor(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are outstanding antigen presenting cells (APCs) due to their robust ability to internalize extracellular antigens using endocytic processes such as receptor-mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis, and macropinocytosis. Macropinocytosis mediates the non-specific uptake of soluble antigens and occurs in DCs constitutively. Macropinocytosis(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to synthesize and evaluate hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives as an efficient nonviral gene-delivery vector. METHODS A series of hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives conjugated with 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine (DMAPA-Glyp) and 1-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine (AEPZ-Glyp) residues were synthesized and(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) injection in treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). METHOD A randomized controlled study was performed in 104 CSP patients receiving either local or systemic MTX injection at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from the year 2008 to 2013. RESULTS Complete cure was defined as(More)