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This paper introduces RL-MAC, a novel adaptive MediaAccess Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that employs a reinforcement learning framework. Existing schemes centre around scheduling the nodes' sleep and active periods as means of minimising the energy consumption. Recent protocols employ adaptive duty cycles as means of further(More)
PURPOSE Epidemiological studies suggest that dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin is inversely related to the risk for senile cataract. The objectives of this work were to investigate the mechanisms by which these nutrients provide anti-cataract effects. We evaluated their modulation of oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) and their(More)
Practical problems in artificial intelligence often involve both large state and/or action spaces where only partial information is available to the agent. In high-dimensional cases, function approximation methods, such as neural networks, are often used to overcome limitations of traditional tabu-lar schemes. In the context of reinforcement learning, the(More)
BACKGROUND Factors responsible for invasive and metastatic progression of prostate cancer (PCa) remain largely unknown. Previously, we reported cloning of prosaposin (PSAP) and its genomic amplification and/or overexpression in several androgen-independent metastatic PCa cell lines and lymph node metastases. PSAP is the lysosomal precursor of saposins,(More)
This brief presents an efficient and scalable online learning algorithm for recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The approach is based on the real-time recurrent learning (RTRL) algorithm, whereby the sensitivity set of each neuron is reduced to weights associated with either its input or output links. This yields a reduced storage and computational complexity(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to synthesize and evaluate hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives as an efficient nonviral gene-delivery vector. METHODS A series of hyperbranched cationic glycogen derivatives conjugated with 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine (DMAPA-Glyp) and 1-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine (AEPZ-Glyp) residues were synthesized and(More)
CD200 is a cell surface glycoprotein that functions through engaging CD200 receptor on cells of the myeloid lineage and inhibits their functions. Expression of CD200 has been implicated in a variety of human cancer cells including melanoma cells and has been thought to play a protumor role. To investigate the role of cancer cell expression of CD200 in tumor(More)
Restin belongs to MAGE superfamily and is known as MAGE H1. Restin was firstly cloned from HL-60 cells treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Previous studies showed a pro-apoptotic role of Restin in several cell lines. However, little information is available on its expression patterns and functions in vivo. Our study was performed to detect if(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) injection in treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). METHOD A randomized controlled study was performed in 104 CSP patients receiving either local or systemic MTX injection at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from the year 2008 to 2013. RESULTS Complete cure was defined as(More)
The concept of parity-time (PT) symmetry in the field of optics has been intensively explored. This study shows the absence of exceptional points in a three-dimensional system composed of a square waveguide array with diagonally-balanced gain/loss distribution. More specifically, we show that an array of four coupled waveguides supports eight fundamental(More)