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AMPK and mTOR play principal roles in governing metabolic programs; however, mechanisms underlying the coordination of the two inversely regulated kinases remain unclear. In this study we found, most surprisingly, that the late endosomal/lysosomal protein complex v-ATPase-Ragulator, essential for activation of mTORC1, is also required for AMPK activation.(More)
The successful and explosive development of nanotechnology is significantly impacting the fields of biology and medicine. Among the spectacular developments of nanobiotechnology, interest has grown in the use of nanomaterials as nanoprobes for bioanalysis and diagnosis. Herein, we review state-of-the-art nanomaterial-based probes and discuss their(More)
The Rho family small GTPases of the Ras superfamily play key roles in regulating diverse signaling pathways that control a myriad of fundamental cellular processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle progression, gene expression, cell polarity, migration and cell transformation. The Rho GTPases cycle between an active GTP-bound and an inactive(More)
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a central role in the hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recently, HSCs were reported to have strong immune modulatory activities. However, the role of HSCs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In this study, we showed that HSCs could promote HCC growth both in vitro and in vivo. We examined the(More)
The immunosuppressive properties of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contribute to the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The accumulation of cells with immune suppressive activities, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a key mechanism for tumor immune evasion. However, the impact of(More)
Minocycline is a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic. A number of preclinical studies have shown that minocycline exhibits neuroprotective effects in various animal models of neurological diseases. However, it remained unknown whether minocycline is effective to prevent neuron loss. To systematically evaluate its effects, minocycline was used to treat(More)
There is urgent need for the treatment of limb ischemia. In order to avoid the risk of genetic materials or injury in collection of implanted cells, a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) sustained release system using cross-linked gelatin microspheres was developed for therapeutic angiogenesis. In this study, gelatin microspheres (MSs) and the complex of(More)
Mean diffusivity (MD) derived from diffusion tensor imaging has shown its ability to assess the microscopic structural integrity damage of gray matter in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the small world topology networks constructed by cortical MD in cognitive disease.(More)
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have immunosuppressive capabilities and contribute to the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy. Our study used mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) in vitro to demonstrate that 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) could reverse HSC-mediated(More)
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of metabolic homeostasis by sensing cellular energy status. AMPK is mainly activated via phosphorylation by LKB1 when cellular AMP/ADP levels are increased. However, how AMP/ADP brings about AMPK phosphorylation remains unclear. Here, we show that it is AMP, but not ADP, that drives AXIN to(More)