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The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 is secreted in a latent complex with its processed propeptide (latency-associated peptide [LAP]). TGFbeta1 must be functionally released from this complex before it can engage TGFbeta receptors. One mechanism of latent TGFbeta1 activation involves interaction of the integrins alpha v beta6(More)
The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in which local radiotherapy is associated with the regression of metastatic cancer at a distance from the irradiated site. The abscopal effect may be mediated by activation of the immune system. Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits an immunologic checkpoint on T cells, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated(More)
The arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-binding integrins alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 activate latent TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta3 in vivo, but it is uncertain whether other RGD-binding integrins such as integrins alphavbeta5 and alphavbeta3 activate these TGFbeta isoforms. To define the combined role of alphavbeta6- and alphavbeta8-integrin in TGFbeta activation, we(More)
Gene deletion experiments have shown that the three TGFbeta isoforms regulate distinct developmental processes. Recent work by our group and others showed that the integrins alphavbeta6 and alphavbeta8 activate latent forms of TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta3. This raises the possibility that TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta3 act redundantly in developmental processes where both(More)
A differentiation antigen commonly expressed on melanoma cells, gp100 is the target of infiltrating T cells. We conducted a phase I randomized cross-over trial of melanoma patients with either xenogeneic (mouse) or human gp100 plasmid DNA injected intramuscularly at three dosages (100, 500 or 1,500 microg) every three weeks for three doses. After the first(More)
BACKGROUND The tumor microenvironment after treatment with ipilimumab is not well described. Furthermore, the safety of surgery for patients being treated with ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma has not been well reported. This study analyzed the safety of surgery and the immune phenotype of tumors resected while on ipilimumab. METHODS From our(More)
PURPOSE Prior studies show that i.m. injection of xenogeneic orthologues of melanosomal antigens (tyrosinase, gp100) induces CD8(+) T-cell responses to the syngeneic protein. To further define the optimal vaccination strategy, we conducted a pilot clinical trial comparing i.m. injection with particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN(More)
Melanoma patients treated with anti-CTLA-4 have shown a range of anti-tumor responses. In this report, we describe the response of a single patient to anti-CTLA-4, with individual lesions disappearing, others stabilizing, and others progressing. These responses can be viewed as a clear manifestation of cancer immunoediting and its three phases of(More)
CD4(+) T cells provide help to enhance and sustain cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses. A direct lytic role for this cell population in mouse models further supports the use of tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells for cancer immunotherapy. CTLA-4 blockade has been shown to expand antigen-specific cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells in mouse models. We took advantage of(More)