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Agonistic behavior is crucial for conspecific members to maintain a social hierarchy, optimum population density, and high fitness. It is known that agonistic behavior and social ranking often interact with hormones such as testosterone (T) and glucocorticoids (GCs). The challenge hypothesis states that T levels in males are promoted by the agonistic(More)
Predation risk is one of the most important selective forces in nature and has significant effects on the behavior and physiology of prey individuals. Prey species have evolved several different traits to reduce and avoid this predation pressure. This research aimed to determine the behavioral and physiological responses of striped field mice to predator(More)
Sex allocation theory predicts the optimal investment to male and female offspring. However, a biased sex ratio requires explanations as to why the deviation occurs. Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely distributed nonhuman primate species and the Taihangshan macaque (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) occupies the northern limit of all rhesus(More)
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