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BACKGROUND Recent evidences have suggested that stem cell can differentiate into cardiomyocyte and smooth muscle cell (SMC) in vivo or in vitro. But the mechanism on how stem cell differentiates is still unknown. We investigated whether intercellular interaction or soluble chemical factors would induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to acquire the(More)
RNA viruses are sensed by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), which signal through a mitochondria-associated adaptor molecule, MAVS, resulting in systemic antiviral immune responses. Although RLR signaling is essential for limiting RNA virus replication, it must be stringently controlled to prevent damage from inflammation. We demonstrate here that among all(More)
The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5' triphosphate (5'ppp) terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at(More)
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