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The dynamics of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during the development of presynaptic specializations in cultured Xenopus spinal cord neurons was studied with the fluorescent vesicular probe FM1-43. In naive neurons that have not contacted synaptic targets, packets of SVs are distributed along the entire neurite and are quite mobile. The interaction with the(More)
The in vivo actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on cerebellum development have been investigated in transgenic (Tg) mice (IGF-II/I Tg mice) in whom an IGF-II promoter-driven IGF-I transgene is highly expressed in cerebellum. Compared to normal littermates, the brains of IGF-II/I Tg mice exhibited overgrowth beginning from the second week of(More)
FRTL-5 cells, a diploid nontransformed line of rat thyroid follicular cells, exhibit a marked mitogenic response to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) when they are exposed to TSH. Because IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) are important modulators of IGF actions, we investigated the capacity of FRTL-5 cells to synthesize IGFBPs. We found that FRTL-5 cell(More)
Recent studies have suggested a role for molecules residing at the muscle surface in signaling presynaptic development at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Since heparan sulfate-proteoglycan is a major component of the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle, factors that are bound to this proteoglycan, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), are in(More)
Three hemizygous transgenic (Tg) mouse lines were generated with a fusion gene composed of the mouse metallothionein promoter (mMT-I) and a full-length human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (hIGFBP-1) complementary DNA that was truncated in its 3'-untranslated region. Despite high serum hIGFBP-1 levels (120-2570 micrograms/liter) before puberty(More)
During the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), motoneurons grow to the muscle cell and the nerve-muscle contact triggers the development of both presynaptic specialization, consisting of clusters of synaptic vesicles (SVs), and postsynaptic specialization, consisting of clusters of synaptic vesicles (SVs), and postsynaptic specialization,(More)
A postsynaptic membrane-associated protein of M(r) 43,000 (43-kD protein) is involved in clustering of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. Previous studies have shown that recombinant mouse 43-kD protein forms membrane-associated clusters when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Coexpression with the AChR results in(More)
The heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPGs) is a components of the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle that is concentrated at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Recent studies have suggested that HSPG, together with its bound peptide growth factors, plays important roles in autocrine or paracrine types of regulation of cell growth and differentiation.(More)
A new method was devised to visualize actin polymerization induced by postsynaptic differentiation signals in cultured muscle cells. This entails masking myofibrillar filamentous (F)-actin with jasplakinolide, a cell-permeant F-actin-binding toxin, before synaptogenic stimulation, and then probing new actin assembly with fluorescent phalloidin. With this(More)
Recent studies have shown that the survival of mammalian motoneurons in vitro is promoted by neurotrophins (NTs) and cAMP. There is also evidence that neurotrophins enhance transmitter release. We thus investigated whether these agents also promote synaptogenesis. Cultured Xenopus spinal cord neurons were treated with a mixture of BDNF, glia-derived(More)