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Deleting a gene in an organism often has little phenotypic effect, owing to two mechanisms of compensation. The first is the existence of duplicate genes: that is, the loss of function in one copy can be compensated by the other copy or copies. The second mechanism of compensation stems from alternative metabolic pathways, regulatory networks, and so on.(More)
We conducted a detailed analysis of duplicate genes in three complete genomes: yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. For two proteins belonging to the same family we used the criteria: (1) their similarity is > or =I (I = 30% if L > or = 150 a.a. and I = 0.01n + 4.8L(-0.32(1 + exp(-L/1000))) if L < 150 a.a., where n = 6 and L is the length of the(More)
We sequenced the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YJM789, which was derived from a yeast isolated from the lung of an AIDS patient with pneumonia. The strain is used for studies of fungal infections and quantitative genetics because of its extensive phenotypic differences to the laboratory reference strain, including growth at high temperature and(More)
Understanding the evolution of gene function is a primary challenge of modern evolutionary biology. Despite an expanding database from genomic and developmental studies, we are lacking quantitative methods for analyzing the evolution of some important measures of gene function, such as gene-expression patterns. Here, we introduce phylogenetic comparative(More)
BACKGROUND Following gene duplication, two duplicate genes may experience relaxed functional constraints or acquire different mutations, and may also diverge in function. Whether the two copies will evolve in different patterns remains unclear, however, because previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions. In order to resolve this issue, by(More)
Whether nonessential genes evolve faster than essential genes has been a controversial issue. To resolve this issue, we use the data from a nearly complete set of single-gene deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assess protein dispensability. Also, instead of the nematode, which was used previously but is only distantly related to S.(More)
A majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations reported to be implicated in diseases are heteroplasmic, a status with coexisting mtDNA variants in a single cell. Quantifying the prevalence of mitochondrial heteroplasmy and its pathogenic effect in healthy individuals could further our understanding of its possible roles in various diseases. A total of(More)
Although the evolutionary significance of gene duplication has long been appreciated, it remains unclear what factors determine gene duplicability. In this study we investigated whether metabolism is an important determinant of gene duplicability because cellular metabolism is crucial for the survival and reproduction of an organism. Using genomic data and(More)
Accurate estimates of mutation rates provide critical information to analyze genome evolution and organism fitness. We used whole-genome DNA sequencing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and comparative genome hybridization to determine mutation rates in diploid vegetative and meiotic mutation accumulation lines of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The vegetative(More)
In this paper we present a new method for detecting block duplications in a genome. It is more stringent than previous ones in that it requires a more rigorous definition of paralogous genes and that it requires the paralogous proteins on the two blocks to be contiguous. In addition, it provides three criterion choices: (1) the same composition (i.e.,(More)