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Slit is a secreted protein known to function through the Roundabout (Robo) receptor as a chemorepellent in axon guidance and neuronal migration, and as an inhibitor in leukocyte chemotaxis. Here we show Slit2 expression in a large number of solid tumors and Robo1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Recombinant Slit2 protein attracted endothelial cells(More)
Sulfolobus islandicus is being used as a model for studying archaeal biology, geo-biology and evolution. However, no genetic system is available for this organism. To produce an S. islandicus mutant suitable for genetic analyses, we screened for colonies with a spontaneous pyrEF mutation. One mutant was obtained containing only 233 bp of the original pyrE(More)
Cell polarity proteins regulate tight junction formation and directional migration in epithelial cells. To date, the mechanism by which these polarity proteins assemble at the leading edge of migrating epithelial cells remains unclear. We report that occludin, a transmembrane protein, is localized at the leading edge of migrating cells and regulates(More)
The conserved polarity complex, comprising the partitioning-defective (Par) proteins Par3 and Par6, and the atypical protein kinase C, functions in various cell-polarization events and asymmetric cell divisions. However, little is known about whether and how external stimuli-induced signals may regulate Par3 function in epithelial cell polarity. Here, we(More)
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN1-4) play a crucial role in the regulation of cell excitability. Importantly, they contribute to spontaneous rhythmic activity in brain and heart. HCN channels are principally activated by membrane hyperpolarization and binding of cAMP. Here, we identify tyrosine phosphorylation by Src kinase(More)
The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were(More)
The MAM-subfamily of type II transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) currently comprises the enzymes PTPkappa, PTPmu and PCP2. In an effort to elucidate the individual physiological roles of these closely related proteins we performed a detailed analysis of their mRNA transcript distributions at different stages of mouse embryogenesis and(More)
BACKGROUND Protein interactions are essential for most cellular functions. Interactions mediated by domains that appear in a large number of proteins are of particular interest since they are expected to have an impact on diversities of cellular processes such as signal transduction and immune response. Many well represented domains recognize and bind to(More)
Microorganisms can utilize different sugars as energy and carbon sources and the genes involved in sugar metabolism often exhibit highly regulated expression. To study cis-acting elements controlling arabinose-responsive expression in archaea, the promoter of the Sulfolobus solfataricus araS gene encoding an arabinose binding protein was characterized using(More)
Sulfolobus belongs to the hyperthermophilic archaea and it serves as a model organism to study archaeal molecular biology and evolution. In the last few years, we have focused on developing genetic systems for Sulfolobus islandicus using pyrEF as a selection marker and versatile genetic tools have been developed, including methods for constructing gene(More)