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We investigated electrophysiological changes in chronically axotomized and neighboring intact dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rats after either a peripheral axotomy consisting of an L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) or a central axotomy produced by an L5 partial rhizotomy (PR). SNL produced lasting hyperalgesia to punctate indentation and tactile(More)
G proteins are ubiquitous molecular switches in eukaryotic signal transduction, but their roles in plant signal transduction had not been clearly established until recent studies of the plant-specific Rop subfamily of RHO GTPases. Rop participates in signaling to an array of physiological processes including cell polarity establishment, cell growth,(More)
The resistant cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) line LC-95, derived from an accession collected in Ecuador, harbors a natural allele (ol-2) that confers broad-spectrum and recessively inherited resistance to powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici). As both the genetic and phytopathological characteristics of ol-2-mediated resistance are(More)
The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that(More)
We present the large-scale correlation function measured from a spectroscopic sample of 46,748 luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The survey region covers 0.72 h À3 Gpc 3 over 3816 deg 2 and 0:16 < z < 0:47, making it the best sample yet for the study of large-scale structure. We find a well-detected peak in the correlation function at(More)
G proteins are universal molecular switches in eukaryotic signal transduction. The Arabidopsis genome sequence reveals no RAS small GTPase and only one or a few heterotrimeric G proteins, two predominant classes of signaling G proteins found in animals. In contrast, Arabidopsis possesses a unique family of 11 Rop GTPases that belong to the Rho family of(More)
• It has long been believed that plant species from the tropics have higher levels of traits associated with resistance to herbivores than do species from higher latitudes. A meta-analysis recently showed that the published literature does not support this theory. However, the idea has never been tested using data gathered with consistent methods from a(More)
Clinical profiles of Parkinson's disease (PD) related to LRRK2 (LRRK2-PD), and GBA (GBA-PD) genes have not been reported in Chinese individuals. In this study, we have investigated motor and non-motor aspects in 1638 Chinese PD patients who carried LRRK2 G2385R or R1628P (LRRK2-PD, n = 223), GBA L444P variant (GBA-PD, n = 49), or none of the variants(More)
Performing two tasks simultaneously (dual-task) is common in human daily life. The neural correlates of dual-task processing remain unclear. In the current study, we used a dual motor and counting task with functional MRI (fMRI) to determine whether there are any areas additionally activated for dual-task performance. Moreover, we investigated the(More)
Pollen-tube growth not only represents an essential stage of plant reproduction but also provides an attractive model for studying cell polarity and morphogenesis. For many years, pollen-tube growth has been known to require a tip-focused Ca2+ gradient and dynamic F actin, but the way that these are controlled remained a mystery until recently. Rop appears(More)