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We investigated electrophysiological changes in chronically axotomized and neighboring intact dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rats after either a peripheral axotomy consisting of an L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) or a central axotomy produced by an L5 partial rhizotomy (PR). SNL produced lasting hyperalgesia to punctate indentation and tactile(More)
The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that(More)
We present the large-scale correlation function measured from a spectroscopic sample of 46,748 luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The survey region covers 0.72 h À3 Gpc 3 over 3816 deg 2 and 0:16 < z < 0:47, making it the best sample yet for the study of large-scale structure. We find a well-detected peak in the correlation function at(More)
Performing two tasks simultaneously (dual-task) is common in human daily life. The neural correlates of dual-task processing remain unclear. In the current study, we used a dual motor and counting task with functional MRI (fMRI) to determine whether there are any areas additionally activated for dual-task performance. Moreover, we investigated the(More)
Clinical profiles of Parkinson's disease (PD) related to LRRK2 (LRRK2-PD), and GBA (GBA-PD) genes have not been reported in Chinese individuals. In this study, we have investigated motor and non-motor aspects in 1638 Chinese PD patients who carried LRRK2 G2385R or R1628P (LRRK2-PD, n = 223), GBA L444P variant (GBA-PD, n = 49), or none of the variants(More)
Granular computing as an enabling technology and as such it cuts across a broad spectrum of disciplines and becomes important to many areas of applications. In this paper, the notions of tolerance relation based information granular space are introduced and formalized mathematically. It is a uniform model to study problems in model recognition and machine(More)
Specific homologs of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) gene family act as susceptibility factors towards the powdery mildew (PM) fungal disease, causing significant economic losses in agricultural settings. Thus, in order to obtain PM resistant phenotypes, a general breeding strategy has been proposed, based on the selective inactivation of MLO susceptibility(More)
We study a sample of about 1400 disk M dwarfs that are found in 148 fields observed with the Wide Field Camera 2 (WFC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope and 162 fields observed with pre-repair Planetary Camera 1 (PC1), of which 95 of the WFC2 fields are newly analyzed. The method of maximum likelihood is applied to derive the luminosity function and the(More)