Learn More
The Notch gene plays a role in the development of disparate tissues in multiple organisms. Because the vertebrate eye is an excellent model system for both patterning and cell fate determination, two processes that can involve Notch, we examined the expression patterns of Notch 1 and Notch 2, and their ligands Delta and Jagged, in the developing rat eye.(More)
We are interested in the mechanisms of glial cell development in the vertebrate central nervous system. We have identified genes that can direct the formation of glia in the retina. rax, a homeobox gene, Hes1, a basic helix-loop-helix gene, and notch1, a transmembrane receptor gene, are expressed in retinal progenitor cells, downregulated in differentiated(More)
The vertebrate heart consists of two types of chambers, the atria and the ventricles, which differ in their contractile and electrophysiological properties. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms by which these chambers are specified during embryogenesis. Here a chicken iroquois-related homeobox gene, Irx4, was identified that has a(More)
Although multiple axon guidance cues have been discovered in recent years, little is known about the mechanism by which the spatiotemporal expression patterns of the axon guidance cues are regulated in vertebrates. We report that a homeobox gene Irx4 is expressed in a pattern similar to that of Slit1 in the chicken retina. Overexpression of Irx4 led to(More)
To define the role of Irx4, a member of the Iroquois family of homeobox transcription factors in mammalian heart development and function, we disrupted the murine Irx4 gene. Cardiac morphology in Irx4-deficient mice (designated Irx4(Delta ex2/Delta ex2)) was normal during embryogenesis and in early postnatal life. Adult Irx4(Delta ex2/Delta ex2) mice(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an inherited disease of motor neuron dysfunction, results from insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Movement of the SMN protein as granules within cultured axons suggests that the pathogenesis of SMA may involve defects in neuronal transport, yet the nature of axon transport vesicles remains(More)
The stereotypical projection of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons to the optic disc has served as a good model system for studying axon guidance. By both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we show that a secreted molecule, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), may play a critical role in the process. It is expressed in a dynamic pattern in the ganglion cell layer with a(More)
In addition to its role as a morphogen, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has also been shown to function as a guidance factor that directly acts on the growth cones of various types of axons. However, the noncanonical signaling pathways that mediate the guidance effects of Shh protein remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that a novel signaling pathway consisting of(More)
Macropinocytosis is a type of poorly characterized fluid-phase endocytosis that results in formation of relatively large vesicles. We report that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) protein induces macropinocytosis in the axons through activation of a noncanonical signaling pathway, including Rho GTPase and nonmuscle myosin II. Macropinocytosis induced by Shh is(More)
By RT-PCR, we isolated a partial cDNA clone for the chick Semaphorin7A (Sema7A) gene. We further analyzed its expression patterns and compared them with those of the Sema3D gene, in chick embryonic development. Sema3D and Sema7A appeared to be expressed in distinct cell populations. In mesoderm-derived structures, Sema7A expression was detected in the newly(More)