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The temporal characteristics and functional diversity of GABAergic inhibition are determined by the spatiotemporal neurotransmitter profile, intrinsic properties of GABAA receptors, and other factors. Here, we report two distinct GABAA responses and the underlying mechanisms in neurons of the chicken nucleus laminaris (NL), the first encoder of interaural(More)
Amiloride, a potassium sparing diuretic, is well known to interact with many ion transport systems and modulate the activity of several membrane receptors. However, relatively little information is available as to how amiloride affects membrane receptors of neurons in the brain areas. In the present study, we investigated the effects of amiloride on(More)
Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) has emerged as a novel form of neural inhibition in the CNS. However, little is known about its presence and function in the auditory system. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we identified a tonic current mediated by GABA(A)Rs containing the δ subunit in(More)
The macula lagena located at the apical end of the cochlea in birds is characterized by the presence of numerous otoliths with unclear sensory functions. These otoliths are reported to be similar to those in the vestibular system but their detailed features in morphology are unknown. In the present study, we examined the number, size and shape of otoliths(More)
Taurine is an important endogenous amino acid for neural development and for many physiological functions, but little is known about its functional role in the central auditory system. We investigated in young rats (P10-P14) the effects of taurine on the neuronal responses and synaptic transmissions in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC)(More)
Neurons in the chicken nucleus laminaris (NL), the third-order auditory neurons that detect the interaural time differences that enable animals to localize sounds in the horizontal plane, receive glutamatergic excitation from the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and GABAergic inhibition from the ipsilateral superior olivary nucleus. Here, we study(More)
Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) has been studied extensively at glutamatergic synapses in the CNS. However, much less is known about heterosynaptic long-term plasticity induced by mGluRs at inhibitory synapses. Here we report that pharmacological or synaptic activation of group II mGluRs (mGluR II)(More)
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is one of the first stations within the central auditory pathway where the basic computations underlying sound localization are initiated and heightened activity in the DCN may underlie central tinnitus. The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), is associated with many distinct behavioral or cognitive(More)
Neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) receive glutamatergic inputs from the spiral ganglion cells via the auditory nerve and feedback GABAergic inputs primarily from the superior olivary nucleus. We investigated regulation of Ca(2+) signaling in NM neurons with ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging in chicken brain slices. Application of exogenous(More)