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AIM To investigate the anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and to explore the mechanisms of the effects. METHODS Rats were given 6% alcohol in water and injected with CCl4 (2 mL/kg, sc) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rg1 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, po) was administered in the last 2 weeks. Hepatic(More)
AIM Protopanaxtriol (Ppt) is extracted from Panax ginseng Mayer. In the present study, we investigated whether Ppt could protect against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced oxidative stress in a rat model of Huntington's disease (HD) and explored the mechanisms of action. METHODS Male SD rats were treated with 3-NP (20 mg/kg on d 1, and 15 mg/kg on d(More)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model remains the most commonly used animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). There are three MPTP-treatment schemes: acute, subacute and chronic. Considering the advantages of the period and similarity to PD, the subacute model was often chosen to assess the validity of new candidates, but the(More)
AIM Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the brain is a characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether treatment with tunicamycin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, led to the accumulation of α-syn in PC12 cells, and where α-syn protein was accumulated, and finally, whether bibenzyl compound 20c, a novel(More)
Protein tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, are implicated in many neural processes. However, the relationship between protein tyrosine kinases and neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In this study, we found that ionomycin, a Ca²⁺ ionophore, concurrently induced asynchronous neurotransmitter release and(More)
BACKGROUND Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is a well-established pathological feature of major depression, accompanied by the persistent increase of glucocorticoid level and the dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the most active ingredients of Panax ginseng, which has various(More)
Growing evidence indicates that GQ1b, one of the gangliosides members, contributes to synaptic transmission and synapse formation. Previous studies have shown that GQ1b could enhance depolarization induced neurotransmitter release, while the role of GQ1b in asynchronous release is still largely unknown. Here in our result, we found low concentration of(More)
We assessed the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) region of morphine-dependent rats on attenuating withdrawal syndrome, and regulating glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). After siRNA-mediated downregulation of TLR4, changes were observed in(More)
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