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Anionic phospholipids modulate the activity of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Fan, Z., and J.C. Makielski. 1997. J. Biol. Chem. 272:5388-5395). The effect of phosphoinositides on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inhibition of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) currents was investigated using the inside-out patch clamp technique in cardiac(More)
Autophagy is involved in the replication of viruses, especially those that perform RNA assembly on the surface of cytoplasmic membrane in host cells. However, little is known about the regulatory role of autophagy in influenza A virus replication. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy, we observed that autophagosomes can be induced and identified upon(More)
BACKGROUND Increased susceptibility to dilated cardiomyopathy has been observed in patients carrying mutations in the SCN5A gene, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we identified and characterized, both in vitro and clinically, an SCN5A mutation associated with familial progressive atrioventricular block of adult onset and dilated(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder in which the loss of dystrophin causes progressive degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Potential therapies that carry substantial risk, such as gene- and cell-based approaches, must first be tested in animal models, notably the mdx mouse and several dystrophin-deficient breeds of(More)
Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels are ubiquitous and critical for neuronal function, immunity, and smooth muscle contractility. BK channels are thought to be regulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) only through phospholipase C (PLC)-generated PIP(2) metabolites that target Ca(2+) stores and protein(More)
Influenza A virus uses sialic acids as cell entry receptors, and there are two main receptor forms, α2,6 linkage or α2,3 linkage to galactose, that determine virus host ranges (mammalian or avian). The receptor binding hemagglutinins (HAs) of both 1918 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 (18H1 and 09H1, respectively) influenza A viruses preferentially bind to the human(More)
Kidneys play an essential role in fluid-ion balance, but the mechanisms of renal handling of water vary depending on structural organization of kidneys and the environment. Fishes and amphibians in a hypoosmotic environment excrete excess water by forming dilute urine, whereas terrestrial tetrapods require water conservation by the kidney for survival.(More)
The goal of this study was to assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers can quantify disease progression in golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) via a natural history study. The proximal pelvic limbs of ten GRMD and eight normal dogs were scanned at 3, 6, and 9-12 months of age. Several MRI imaging and texture analysis biomarkers were(More)
 The complete nucleotide sequence of the prevalent strain of a potyvirus isolated from maize in Beijing, China was determined and compared with other closely related potyviruses. The viral genome comprises 9595 nucleotides, excluding the poly (A) tail, and encodes a putative polyprotein of 3063 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison of the coat proteins(More)
An avian-origin human-infecting influenza (H7N9) virus was recently identified in China. We have evaluated the viral hemagglutinin (HA) receptor-binding properties of two human H7N9 isolates, A/Shanghai/1/2013 (SH-H7N9) (containing the avian-signature residue Gln(226)) and A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) (containing the mammalian-signature residue Leu(226)). We(More)