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The conjugation of arginine to proteins is a part of the N-end rule pathway of protein degradation. Three amino (N)-terminal residues--aspartate, glutamate and cysteine--are arginylated by ATE1-encoded arginyl-transferases. Here we report that oxidation of N-terminal cysteine is essential for its arginylation. The in vivo oxidation of N-terminal cysteine,(More)
Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) is the mechanism that diversifies the biological effector functions of antibodies. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a key protein in CSR, targets immunoglobulin H (IgH) switch regions, which contain 5'-AGCT-3' repeats in their core. How AID is recruited to switch regions remains unclear. Here we show that(More)
By diversifying antibody biological effector functions, class switch DNA recombination has a central role in the maturation of the antibody response. Here we show that BCR-signalling synergizes with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling to induce class switch DNA recombination. BCR-signalling activates the non-canonical NF-κB pathway and enhances the(More)
AID is critical for immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Here we showed that AID expression was induced by the HoxC4 homeodomain transcription factor, which bound to a highly conserved HoxC4-Oct site in the Aicda promoter. This site functioned in synergy with a conserved Sp-NF-κB-binding site. HoxC4 was(More)
Ribosomes can be programmed to shift from one reading frame to another during translation. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses such a mechanism to produce F protein from the -2/+1 reading frame. We now report that the HCV frameshift signal can mediate the synthesis of the core protein of the zero frame, the F protein of the -2/+1 frame, and a 1.5-kDa protein of(More)
Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus crucially diversifies antibody biological effector functions. CSR involves the induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression and AID targeting to switch (S) regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. 14-3-3 adaptors specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats, which make(More)
To meet some special needs, this article primarily introduced an automatic node arranging algorithm of Scleronomic Activity-On-Arrow Network. By introducing the concept of Main-Path, the thoughts and steps of the algorithm realization, which means to arrange the nodes around the Main-Path from inside to outside, it helps the readers to understand the(More)
Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) crucially diversifies Ab biologic effector functions. 14-3-3γ specifically binds to the 5'-AGCT-3' repeats in the IgH locus switch (S) regions. By interacting directly with the C-terminal region of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), 14-3-3γ targets this enzyme to S regions to mediate CSR. In this study, we(More)
B cells are central to adaptive immunity and their functions in antibody responses are exquisitely regulated. As suggested by recent findings, B cell differentiation is mediated by intracellular membrane structures (including endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes) and protein factors specifically associated with these membranes, including Rab7, Atg5, and(More)