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The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus is reported to have analgesic activity and the administration of Crotoxin (Cro) to cancer patients is reported to reduce the consumption of analgesics. This study investigated the analgesia induced by Cro and the effects of atropine and naloxone on the antinociceptive activity of Cro in mice and rats. The results(More)
Previous studies found that kainic acid (KA)-induced apoptosis involved the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B, suggesting a possible mechanism of autophagy in excitotoxicity. The present study was sought to investigate activation and contribution of autophagy to excitotoxic neuronal injury mediated by KA receptors. The formation of autophagosomes was observed(More)
The present study sought to investigate mechanisms by which p53 induction contributes to excitotoxic neuronal injury. Rats were intrastriatally administered the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QA), the changes in the expression of p53 and its target genes involved in apoptosis and autophagy, including p53-upregulated modulator(More)
We have previously reported that prostaglandin A(1) (PGA(1)) reduces infarct size in rodent models of focal ischemia. This study seeks to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms underlying PGA(1)'s neuroprotective effects against ischemic injury. Rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) by intraluminal suture blockade.(More)
Both prostaglandin A(1) (PGA(1)) and lithium have been reported to protect neurons against excitotoxic and ischemic injury. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of lithium and PGA1 on heat shock proteins (HSP) and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene (GADD153) and to evaluate if lithium could potentiate PGA(1)'s neuroprotective(More)
Huntingtons disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the protein named huntingtin. The expansion of polyglutamine tract induces selective degeneration of striatal projection neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. The bio-hallmark of HD is the formation of intranuclear inclusions and cytoplasmic aggregates in association with(More)
It is well documented that nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in maintaining functions of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cholinergic activity controls NGF levels in cholinoceptive neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. To address that question, we used both cholinergic(More)
AIM In light of the antinociceptive activity of the short-chain neurotoxin, cobrotoxin, and other acetylcholine antagonists, the antinociceptive activity and mechanisms of cobratoxin (CTX), a long-chain postsynaptic alpha-neurotoxin, was investigated in rodent pain models. METHODS CTX was administered intraperitoneally (30, 45, 68 microg/kg),(More)
There are deficits in cholinergic basal forebrain neurons (CBFNs) in the aged brain and patients suffering Alzheimer's disease associated with a partial loss of the CBFNs. To mimic this partial loss and assess its long term effects on residual cholinergic activity and resultant target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) levels, we produced a partial(More)
AIM To investigate the effects of bilobalide on the activation of NF-kappaB, and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). METHODS A rat model of Parkinson's disease was produced with a unilateral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 mug) into the substantia nigra par compact. Bilobalide was administered 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg (ip) once a day(More)