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— Given n discrete random variables = fX 1 ; 11 1; X n g, associated with any subset of f1; 2; 111 ; ng, there is a joint entropy H(X) where X = fX i : i 2 g. This can be viewed as a function defined on 2 f1; 2; 111;ng taking values in [0; +1). We call this function the entropy function of. The nonnegativity of the joint entropies implies that this function(More)
BACKGROUND Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) is an affinity-based mass spectrometric method in which proteins of interest are selectively adsorbed to a chemically modified surface on a biochip, whereas impurities are removed by washing with buffer. This technology allows sensitive and high-throughput protein profiling of complex(More)
BACKGROUND RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR in such studies requires the use of reference gene(s) as an internal control to normalize mRNA levels between different samples for an exact comparison of gene expression level. However, recent studies have shown that(More)
Several methods for testing mediation hypotheses with 2-level nested data have been proposed by researchers using a multilevel modeling (MLM) paradigm. However, these MLM approaches do not accommodate mediation pathways with Level-2 outcomes and may produce conflated estimates of between- and within-level components of indirect effects. Moreover, these(More)
BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic plaques that lead to acute coronary syndromes often occur at sites of angiographically mild coronary-artery stenosis. Lesion-related risk factors for such events are poorly understood. METHODS In a prospective study, 697 patients with acute coronary syndromes underwent three-vessel coronary angiography and gray-scale and(More)
— Given n discrete random variables = fX 1 ; 111; X n g, associated with any subset of f1; 2; 111; ng, there is a joint entropy H(X) where X = fX i : i 2 g. This can be viewed as a function defined on 2 f1; 2; 111;ng taking values in [0; +1). We call this function the entropy function of. The nonnegativity of the joint entropies implies that this function(More)
The achievable information rate region problem of multisource multisink network coding for general acyclic networks with arbitrary transmission requirements has previously been studied, where inner and outer bounds on the region were derived in terms of <formula formulatype="inline"><tex Notation="TeX">$\Gamma^{\ast}$</tex> </formula>, the fundamental(More)
For the discrete memoryless channel (X ; Y; W) we give characterisations of the zero{ error erasure capacity C er and the zero{error average list size capacity C a` in terms of limits of suitable information resp. divergence quantities (Theorem 1). However, they don't \single{letterize". Next we assume that X Y and W(xjx) > 0 for all x 2 X , and we(More)
Testing multilevel mediation using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) has gained tremendous popularity in recent years. However, potential confounding in multilevel mediation effect estimates can arise in these models when within-group effects differ from between-group effects. This study summarizes three types of HLM-based multilevel mediation models, and(More)