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PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator induced by exercise that gives muscle many of the best known adaptations to endurance-type exercise but has no effects on muscle strength or hypertrophy. We have identified a form of PGC-1α (PGC-1α4) that results from alternative promoter usage and splicing of the primary transcript. PGC-1α4 is highly expressed in(More)
The voltage-gated calcium channel Ca(v)1.1 is engaged in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscles. The Ca(v)1.1 complex consists of the pore-forming subunit α1 and auxiliary subunits α2δ, β, and γ. We report the structure of the rabbit Ca(v)1.1 complex determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The four homologous repeats of the(More)
The efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) expressed on the cell surface of neurons. The clathrin adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex is a critical regulator of GABA(A)R endocytosis and, hence, surface receptor number. Here, we identify a previously uncharacterized atypical AP2 binding motif(More)
Mounting evidence suggests that acute and chronic stress, especially the stress-induced release of glucocorticoids, induces changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, thereby influencing some aspects of cognitive processing. In addition, dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission is increasingly considered to be(More)
Synaptic spines are dynamic structures that regulate neuronal responsiveness and plasticity. We examined the role of the schizophrenia risk factor DISC1 in the maintenance of spine morphology and function. We found that DISC1 anchored Kalirin-7 (Kal-7), regulating access of Kal-7 to Rac1 and controlling the duration and intensity of Rac1 activation in(More)
global striatal activity. This suppression could result from dopaminergic modulation of voltage-dependent ionic conductances regulating repetitive discharge or could result from an alteration of synaptically mediated currents, such those arising from GABAergic neurons responding to the sensory cue (Alexander et al., 1986). In spite of its recognized(More)
Pathological and physiological stimuli, including acute exercise, activate autophagy; however, it is unknown whether exercise training alters basal levels of autophagy and whether autophagy is required for skeletal muscle adaptation to training. We observed greater autophagy flux (i.e., a combination of increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and LC3-II levels and(More)
The prefrontal cortex (PFC), a key brain region controlling cognition and emotion, is strongly influenced by stress. While chronic stress often produces detrimental effects on these measures, acute stress has been shown to enhance learning and memory, predominantly through the action of corticosteroid stress hormones. We used a combination of(More)
Interactions between dopamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain regions are believed to play an important role in normal mental function and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined the regulation of NMDAR currents by the dopamine D1 receptor in PFC pyramidal neurons. Application of the D1(More)
We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect of TRPV1 on cytosolic calcium was determined(More)