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In recent years, the distribution of dopamine receptor subtypes among the principal neurons of the neostriatum has been the subject of debate. Conventional anatomical and physiological approaches have yielded starkly different estimates of the extent to which D1 and D2 class dopamine receptors are colocalized. One plausible explanation for the discrepancy(More)
The physiological state of the cell is controlled by signal transduction mechanisms which regulate the balance between protein kinase and protein phosphatase activities. Here we report that a single protein can, depending on which particular amino-acid residue is phosphorylated, function either as a kinase or phosphatase inhibitor. DARPP-32 (dopamine and(More)
The signaling pathways mediating the muscarinic modulation of Ca2+ currents in neostriatal cholinergic interneurons were studied by combined patch-clamp recording and single-cell reverse transcription-PCR. Cholinergic interneurons were identified by the presence of choline acetyltransferase mRNA. These neurons expressed Q-, N-, L-, P-, and R-type Ca2+(More)
The voltage-gated calcium channel Ca(v)1.1 is engaged in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscles. The Ca(v)1.1 complex consists of the pore-forming subunit α1 and auxiliary subunits α2δ, β, and γ. We report the structure of the rabbit Ca(v)1.1 complex determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The four homologous repeats of the(More)
Cocaine enhances dopamine-mediated neurotransmission by blocking dopamine re-uptake at axon terminals. Most dopamine-containing nerve terminals innervate medium spiny neurons in the striatum of the brain. Cocaine addiction is thought to stem, in part, from neural adaptations that act to maintain equilibrium by countering the effects of repeated drug(More)
PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator induced by exercise that gives muscle many of the best known adaptations to endurance-type exercise but has no effects on muscle strength or hypertrophy. We have identified a form of PGC-1α (PGC-1α4) that results from alternative promoter usage and splicing of the primary transcript. PGC-1α4 is highly expressed in(More)
Mounting evidence suggests that acute and chronic stress, especially the stress-induced release of glucocorticoids, induces changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, thereby influencing some aspects of cognitive processing. In addition, dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission is increasingly considered to be(More)
Corticosteroid stress hormones have a strong impact on the function of prefrontal cortex (PFC), a central region controlling cognition and emotion, though the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We found that behavioral stressor or short-term corticosterone treatment in vitro induces a delayed and sustained potentiation of the synaptic response and surface(More)
Synaptic spines are dynamic structures that regulate neuronal responsiveness and plasticity. We examined the role of the schizophrenia risk factor DISC1 in the maintenance of spine morphology and function. We found that DISC1 anchored Kalirin-7 (Kal-7), regulating access of Kal-7 to Rac1 and controlling the duration and intensity of Rac1 activation in(More)
Dopamine has long been known to regulate the activity of striatal cholinergic interneurons and the release of acetylcholine. Yet, the cellular mechanisms by which this regulation occurs have not been elucidated. One way in which dopamine might act is by modulating voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. To test this hypothesis, the impact of dopaminergic agonists(More)