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An adaptive spline method for smoothing is proposed which combines features from both regression spline and smoothing spline approaches. One of its advantages is the ability to vary the amount of smoothing in response to the inhomogeneous \curvature" of true functions at diierent locations. This method can be applied to many multivariate function estimation(More)
Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were(More)
An important aspect of synapse development is the clustering of neurotransmitter receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Although MuSK is required for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We report here that in muscle cells, MuSK interacts with Dishevelled (Dvl), a(More)
Agrin activates the transmembrane tyrosine kinase MuSK to mediate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, the intracellular signaling mechanism downstream of MuSK is poorly characterized. This study provides evidence that geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGT) is an important signaling component in the Agrin/MuSK(More)
ÐThe speed of arithmetic calculations in configurable hardware is limited by carry propagation, even with the dedicated hardware found in recent FPGAs. This paper proposes and evaluates an approach called delayed addition that reduces the carry-propagation bottleneck and improves the performance of arithmetic calculations. Our approach employs the idea used(More)
A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100 mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150 mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the(More)
Non-uniform root salinity increases the Na(+)efflux, water use, and growth of the root in non-saline side, which may be regulated by some form of signaling induced by the high-salinity side. However, the signaling and its specific function have remained unknown. Using a split-root system to simulate a non-uniform root zone salinity in Gossypium hirsutum L.,(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with numerous liver diseases and causes serious global health problems, but the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCV infections remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and B-cell lymphoma(More)
Treatment of recurring oral cancers is challenging as common surgical approaches are not feasible for these patients. In addition, these patients do not respond well to systemic chemotherapy. Localized intratumoral injection of anti-cancer drugs is considered to be an attractive alternative treatment approach for these patients. However, conventional(More)