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User authentication is a basic security requirement during the deployment of the wireless sensor network (WSN), because it may operate in a rather hostile environment, such as a military battlefield. In 2010, Khan and Alghathbar (KA) found out that Das’s two-factor user authentication scheme for WSNs is vulnerable to the gateway node (GW-node) bypassing(More)
In 2005, Lee, Kim, and Yoo proposed a nonce-based mutual authentication scheme using smart cards. However, this paper demonstrates that Lee-Kim-Yoo's scheme is vulnerable to an impersonation attack that the attacker without knowing the remote user's any secret can masquerade as him by obtaining the valid authentication message from any normal session(More)
Key authentication is very important in secret communications and data security. Recently, Lee, Hwang and Li proposed a new public key authentication scheme for cryptosystems with a trusty server. However, in this paper, we will show that Lee-Hwang-Li's key authenti-cation scheme is not secure, from the obtained public information, any one can get the(More)
This study was aimed at investigating the sampling strategies for 2 types of figures: 3-D cubes and human faces. The research was focused on: (a) from where the sampling process started; (b) in what order the figures' features were sampled. The study consisted of 2 experiments: (a) sampling strategies for 3-D cubes; (b) sampling strategies for human faces.(More)