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Neural circuits for essential natural behaviors are shaped by selective pressure to coordinate reliable execution of flexible goal-directed actions. However, the structural and functional organization of survival-oriented circuits is poorly understood due to exceptionally complex neuroanatomy. This is exemplified by AGRP neurons, which are a molecularly(More)
Homeostasis is a biological principle for regulation of essential physiological parameters within a set range. Behavioural responses due to deviation from homeostasis are critical for survival, but motivational processes engaged by physiological need states are incompletely understood. We examined motivational characteristics of two separate neuron(More)
The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment has observed the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin suppression (called the GZK cutoff) with a statistical significance of five standard deviations. HiRes' measurement of the flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays shows a sharp suppression at an energy of 6 x 10(19) eV, consistent with the expected cutoff energy. We(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a severe viral disease in pigs, causing great economic losses worldwide each year. The causative agent of the disease, PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a member of the family Arteriviridae. Here we report our investigation of the unparalleled large-scale outbreaks of an originally unknown, but so-called "high(More)
Mammalian cells repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via efficient pathways of direct, nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Prior work has identified a complex of two polypeptides, PSF and p54(nrb), as a stimulatory factor in a reconstituted in vitro NHEJ system. PSF also stimulates early steps of HR in vitro. PSF and(More)
OBJECTIVE Dopamine (DA) is critical for motor performance, motor learning, and corticostriatal plasticity. The relationship between motor performance and learning, and the role of DA in the mediation of them, however, remain unclear. METHODS To examine this question, we took advantage of PITx3-deficient mice (aphakia mice), in which DA in the dorsal(More)
The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and circulating tumor cells. The first seven fully characterized(More)
How does an organism's internal state direct its actions? At one moment an animal forages for food with acrobatic feats such as tree climbing and jumping between branches. At another time, it travels along the ground to find water or a mate, exposing itself to predators along the way. These behaviors are costly in terms of energy or physical risk, and the(More)
Both the dorsal and ventral striatum have been demonstrated to have a critical role in reinforcement learning and addiction. Dissecting the specific function of these striatal compartments and their associated nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbens dopamine pathways, however, has proved difficult. Previous studies using lesions to isolate the contribution of(More)
Hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx) neurons coordinate sleep-wake cycles, reward seeking, and body energy balance. Neurochemical data suggest that hcrt/orx cells contain several transmitters, but what hcrt/orx cells release onto their projection targets is unknown. A major pathway by which hcrt/orx neurons are thought to promote arousal is through(More)