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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a severe viral disease in pigs, causing great economic losses worldwide each year. The causative agent of the disease, PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a member of the family Arteriviridae. Here we report our investigation of the unparalleled large-scale outbreaks of an originally unknown, but so-called "high(More)
Autophagy is a lysosome-based degradation pathway. During autophagy, lysosomes fuse with autophagosomes to form autolysosomes. Following starvation-induced autophagy, nascent lysosomes are formed from autolysosomal membranes through an evolutionarily conserved cellular process, autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), which is critical for maintaining(More)
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) represent a group of highly aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that may occur sporadically, in association with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1 associated) or after radiotherapy. Using comprehensive genomic approaches, we identified loss-of-function somatic alterations of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)(More)
The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and circulating tumor cells. The first seven fully characterized(More)
Zebrafish has emerged as a valuable model for immunological studies. However, little is known about the overall picture of its immune response to infectious pathogens. Here we present the first systematic study of its immune response to Aeromonas salmonicida and Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-negative and a Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Genes induced(More)
Mammalian cells repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via efficient pathways of direct, nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Prior work has identified a complex of two polypeptides, PSF and p54(nrb), as a stimulatory factor in a reconstituted in vitro NHEJ system. PSF also stimulates early steps of HR in vitro. PSF and(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) converts cytosine into uracil to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of antibody genes. In addition, this enzyme produces DNA lesions at off-target sites that lead to mutations and chromosome translocations. However, AID is mostly cytoplasmic, and how and exactly when it(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the outcome of a comprehensive surgical approach on the treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and find out possible predictors to the effectiveness of this approach. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING Eighteen patients received genioglossus advancement with hyoid suspension (GAHM) and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty(More)
The evolution of cooperative behaviour is studied in the deterministic version of the Prisoners' Dilemma on a two-dimensional lattice. The payoff parameter is set at the critical region 1.8 < b < 2.0 , where clusters of cooperators are formed in all spatial sizes. Using the factorial moments developed in particle and nuclear physics for the study of phase(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has a major negative economic impact on the swine industry worldwide. During the investigation of PRRS virus (PRRSV) in mainland China, European genotype (EU, type 1) PRRSV isolates were detected in swine herds both with and without clinical symptoms. Two complete genome sequences for Chinese type 1 PRRSV(More)