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In WDM msmission, each data channel is carried on a unique wavelength (or optical fnquency) and a single optical fiber has many different wavelengths. A lightpath (wavelength continuous path without processing in intermediate nodes) is needed to set up for an end-bend transmission Because of the lightpath continuity constraint, we need to consider the(More)
This paper studies the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in multi-segment optical networks. The notion of network segment is referred to any part of the network that requires special consideration of wavelength routing such as separate administrative domains in a large scale optical network, sub-networks run by various service providers, etc.(More)
This deliverable defines a carrier-grade split architecture based on requirements identified during the SPARC project. It presents the SplitArchitecture proposal, the SPARC concept for Software Defined Networking (SDN) introduced for large-scale wide area networks such as access/aggregation networks, and evaluates technical issues against architectural(More)
This paper proposes a novel integrated routing and grooming algorithm for IP over WDM networks. Given a peer model in GMPLS-Based optical networks, we take into account the combined topology and resource usage information on both the IP and WDM layers. Based on a clustering technique called the Blocking Island Paradigm, we propose an enhanced Blocking(More)
Previous works have shown the wavelength conversion can considerably reduce the blocking probability in all-optical networks, but most of analytical models and algorithms are proposed under simplifying assumptions or restricted to specific cases. In this paper, motivated by an abstracting technique called Blocking Island (BI) paradigm, we propose wavelength(More)
In this paper we consider the routing and wavelength assignment problem as well as the placement of wavelength converters in a wavelength routed all-optical network. Using a clustering technique called BI (Blocking Island), we propose a simple and intelligent RWA (Routing and Wavelength Assignment) algorithm: BI_RWA and a converter placement algorithm.(More)
AIM Human pituitary adenomas account for 10% of intracranial tumours and occur in about 20% of the population. They cause hypopituitarism or the compression of adjacent regional structures. However, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis that contributes to the development of these tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, we investigated the(More)
This paper proposes an integrated provisioning and protection scheme in GMPLS-based IP over WDM networks, which takes into account the combined topology and resource availability knowledge on the IP and WDM layers. A GMPLS-based network architecture is discussed for possible implementation of the scheme. We adopt a clustering technique called Blocking(More)
In this paper, we investigate the problem of routing and wavelength assignment as well as the problem of the placement of wavelength converters in all-optical networks. In particular, we present a general framework, based on the blocking island (BI) paradigm, to illustrate how it can be used to solve these problems in a unified way. We first give a brief(More)
In this paper, we present a protection and provisioning framework to provide network survivability in IP/WDM networks based on GMPLS. This framework is based on a clustering technique called Blocking Island Paradigm. We take into the combined topology and resource availability knowledge on the IP and WDM layer to optimize the performance of the framework.(More)