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This paper proposes a novel integrated routing and grooming algorithm for IP over WDM networks. Given a peer model in GMPLS-Based optical networks, we take into account the combined topology and resource usage information on both the IP and WDM layers. Based on a clustering technique called the Blocking Island Paradigm, we propose an enhanced Blocking… (More)
This paper studies the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in multi-segment optical networks. The notion of network segment is referred to any part of the network that requires special consideration of wavelength routing such as separate administrative domains in a large scale optical network, sub-networks run by various service providers, etc.… (More)
—Previous works have shown the wavelength conversion can considerably reduce the blocking probability in all-optical networks, but most of analytical models and algorithms are proposed under simplifying assumptions or restricted to specific cases. In this paper, motivated by an abstracting technique called Blocking Island (BI) paradigm, we propose… (More)
This report defines a carrier-grade split architecture based on requirements identified during the SPARC project. It presents the SplitArchitecture proposal, the SPARC concept for Software Defined Networking (SDN) introduced for large-scale wide area networks such as access/aggregation networks, and evaluates technical issues against architectural… (More)
—In this paper, we investigate the problem of routing and wavelength assignment as well as the problem of the placement of wavelength converters in all-optical networks. In particular, we present a general framework, based on the blocking island (BI) paradigm, to illustrate how it can be used to solve these problems in a unified way. We first give a brief… (More)
AIM Human pituitary adenomas account for 10% of intracranial tumours and occur in about 20% of the population. They cause hypopituitarism or the compression of adjacent regional structures. However, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis that contributes to the development of these tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, we investigated the… (More)