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UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) catalyzes the reversible production of glucose-1-phosphate and UTP to UDP-glucose and pyrophosphate. The rice (Oryza sativa) genome contains two homologous UGPase genes, Ugp1 and Ugp2. We report a functional characterization of rice Ugp1, which is expressed throughout the plant, with highest expression in florets,(More)
Planthoppers are highly destructive pests in crop production worldwide. Brown planthopper (BPH) causes the most serious damage of the rice crop globally among all rice pests. Growing resistant varieties is the most effective and environment-friendly strategy for protecting the crop from BPH. More than 19 BPH-resistance genes have been reported and used to(More)
Engineering and breeding resistant plant varieties are the most effective and environmentally friendly ways to control agricultural pests and improve crop performance. However, the mechanism of plant resistance to pests is poorly understood. Here we used a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approach for comparative analysis of expression(More)
Self-renewal and pluripotency are hallmarks of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the signaling pathways that trigger their transition from self-renewal to differentiation remain elusive. Here, we report that calcineurin-NFAT signaling is both necessary and sufficient to switch ESCs from an undifferentiated state to lineage-specific cells and that the(More)
Direct reprogramming of human somatic cells into pluripotency has broad implications in generating patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for disease modeling and cellular replacement therapies. However, the low efficiency and safety issues associated with generation of human iPS cells have limited their usage in clinical settings. Cell types(More)
Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization may involve programmed genetic and epigenetic changes. In this study, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method to survey cytosine methylation alterations that occurred in F1 hybrid and BC1 progeny following interspecific hybridization between Oryza sativa and O. officinalis.(More)
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been used clinically to slow down osteoporosis and promote fracture healing for many years. However, the underlying action mechanisms and optimal parameters of the EMF applications are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment for different durations with 50 Hz sinusoidal electromagnetic fields(More)
In this paper a contrast-guided image interpolation method is proposed that incorporates contrast information into the image interpolation process. Given the image under interpolation, four binary contrast-guided decision maps (CDMs) are generated and used to guide the interpolation filtering through two sequential stages: 1) the 45° and 135°(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the feasibility of developing vascularized tissue-engineered corpus cavernosum with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-expressing muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) as seed cells in a rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS MDSCs were isolated and expanded in vitro and transfected with human VEGF(165) lentiviral gene vector. The(More)
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted enormous attention due to their vast potential in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical screening and basic research. Most prior established iPS cell lines were derived and maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells supplemented with exogenous leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Drawbacks of MEF(More)