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In the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW), vehicles have to transport loads from origins to destinations respecting capacity and time constraints. In this paper, we present a two-phase method to solve the PDPTW. In the first phase, we apply a novel construction heuris tics to generate an initial solution. In the second phase, a tabu(More)
The CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors, particularly C/EBPdelta, is well known to regulate or co-regulate a wide range of inflammatory mediators and mechanisms in the periphery, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). These cytokines, in turn, can induce(More)
The MYB superfamily constitutes one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors described in plants. Nevertheless, their functions appear to be highly diverse and remain rather unclear. To date, no genome-wide characterization of this gene family has been conducted in a legume species. Here we report the first genome-wide analysis of the whole MYB(More)
MYB proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. Recent evidence revealed that MYB-related genes play crucial roles in plants. However, compared with the R2R3-MYB type, little is known about the complex evolutionary history of MYB-related proteins in plants. Here, we present a genome-wide analysis of MYB-related proteins(More)
Estrogen is thought to play a protective role against neurodegeneration through a variety of mechanisms including the activation of growth factors, the control of synaptic plasticity, and the reduction of response to various insults, such as iron and glutamate. Increasing evidence indicates an increased level of extracellular glutamate and a down-regulation(More)
Calpains are Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases that participate in a range of crucial cellular processes. Dysfunction of these enzymes may cause, for instance, life-threatening diseases in humans, the loss of sex determination in nematodes and embryo lethality in plants. Although the calpain family is well characterized in animal and plant model organisms,(More)
We note the common existence of a supersonic jet structure locally embedded within a surrounding transonic flow field in the hitherto unrelated phenomena of unstable gaseous detonation and hypervelocity blunt body shock wave interaction. Extending prior results that demonstrate the consequences of reduced endothermic reaction rate for the supersonic jet(More)
R2R3-MYB proteins (2R-MYBs) are one of the main transcription factor families in higher plants. Since the evolutionary history of this gene family across the eukaryotic kingdom remains unknown, we performed a comparative analysis of 2R-MYBs from 50 major eukaryotic lineages, with particular emphasis on land plants. A total of 1548 candidates were identified(More)