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Conditions such as acidosis, uremia, and sepsis are characterized by insulin resistance and muscle wasting, but whether the insulin resistance associated with these disorders contributes to muscle atrophy is unclear. We examined this question in db/db mice with increased blood glucose despite high levels of plasma insulin. Compared with control littermate(More)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and several other catabolic conditions are characterized by increased circulating inflammatory cytokines, defects in IGF-1 signaling, abnormal muscle protein metabolism, and progressive muscle atrophy. In these conditions, no reliable treatments successfully block the development of muscle atrophy. In mice with CKD, we found a(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary atherosclerotic disease remains the leading cause of death in the Western world. Although the exact sequence of events in this process is controversial, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RS) likely play an important role in vascular cell dysfunction and atherogenesis. Oxidative damage to the mitochondrial genome with resultant(More)
Illnesses associated with insulin resistance exhibit increases in whole-body protein degradation and amino acid oxidation. However, the mechanisms stimulating muscle catabolism under these conditions are not clear. Because insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of lipids in muscle, we measured protein degradation in muscles of mice fed a(More)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and can result in cachexia with loss of muscle and fat stores. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of treating a model of cancer cachexia with ghrelin and a ghrelin receptor agonist. Currently, we examine a surgical model of CKD in rats, resulting in uremia and(More)
Animal studies suggest that increased levels of circulating angiotensin II (AngII) could contribute to the loss of lean body mass in chronic kidney disease, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Here, AngII infusion increased circulating IL-6 and its hepatic production in wild-type mice, suggesting that AngII-induced inflammation may trigger(More)
Muscle proteolysis from catabolic conditions, including chronic kidney disease, requires coordinated activation of both the apoptotic and ATP-ubiquitin-proteasome systems (Ub-P'some), including upregulation of components of the Ub-P'some system. Activation of the apoptotic system is required because caspase-3 initially cleaves myofibrils, yielding(More)
Complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) include depressed responses to insulin/IGF-1 and accelerated muscle proteolysis as a result of activation of caspase-3 and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Experimentally, proteolysis in muscle cells occurs when there is suppression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activity. Postreceptor signaling(More)
Mitochondrial genomes are exposed to a heavy load of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage DNA. Since in neurons, mitochondrial DNA integrity must be maintained over the entire mammalian life span, neuronal mitochondria most likely repair oxidatively damaged DNA. We show that the Escherichia coli MutY DNA glycosylase homolog (MYH) in rat (rMYH) involved(More)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) accelerates muscle protein degradation by stimulating the ubiquitin proteasome system through activation of the E3 ligases, Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF-1. Forkhead transcription factors (FoxOs) can control the expression of these E3 ligases, but the contribution of individual FoxOs to muscle wasting is unclear. To study this we(More)