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A nonlinear dynamical system, in which the feed rates of glycerol and alkali are taken as the control functions, is first proposed to formulate the fed-batch culture of 1,3-propanediol 1,3-PD production. To maximize the 1,3-PD concentration at the terminal time, a constrained optimal control model is then presented. A solution approach is developed to seek(More)
XLPE cables are widely used in urban distribution systems because of their excellent mechanical, heat and electrical properties. However, water tree, formed due to the existence of water and intense electric field, is one of the primary causes of aging breakdown. There used to be several methods, such as insulation impedance method and DC leakage current(More)
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