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BACKGROUND The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viruses by inducing expression of cytokines and chemokines. Many pandemic influenza H1N1 virus [P(H1N1)] infected severe cases occur in young adults under 18 years old who were rarely seriously affected by seasonal influenza. Results regarding host cytokine profiles of P(H1N1) are(More)
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus and detected worldwide in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), but its pathogenic role in respiratory illness is still debatable due to high incidence of co-infection with other respiratory viruses. To determine the prevalence of HBoV infection in patients with LRTI in Shanghai and its correlation with disease(More)
pdf). The absence of correlation between the IgG statuses of mothers and children suggests that vertical transmission is probably not a major contributor to new infections, although it remains plausible that it may sometimes occur. Data from Europe that suggest an association between PARV4 infection and progression to Centers for Disease Control and(More)
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