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BACKGROUND Previous studies employing retrospective assessments methods found that regular ecstasy users frequently use alcohol, marihuana and other drugs in combination with ecstasy. METHODS Twenty-two participants (13 males, 9 females) wore a wrist actigraph/data recorder to record real-time drug use and ecstasy craving for 6 weeks. Rates of alcohol and(More)
High-throughput sequencing platforms provide an approach for detecting rare HIV-1 variants and documenting more fully quasispecies diversity. We applied this technology to the V3 loop-coding region of env in samples collected from 4 chronically HIV-infected subjects in whom CCR5 antagonist (vicriviroc [VVC]) therapy failed. Between 25,000-140,000 amplified(More)
BACKGROUND Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with dysfunctional reward processing. The present study assessed for such dysfunction in both the expectancy and outcome phases of reward processing. METHODS Male Vietnam veterans with (n=15) and without (n=11) combat-related PTSD were administered a wheel of fortune-type gambling task.(More)
We previously demonstrated that short-term treatment with a standardized kudzu extract (NPI-031) reduced alcohol drinking by men and women in a natural setting. The present study was conducted in nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers to assess the safety and efficacy of 4 weeks of kudzu extract in an outpatient setting. This randomized between-subject,(More)
A tropism test is required prior to initiation of CCR5 antagonist therapy in HIV-1 infected individuals, as these agents are not effective in patients harboring CXCR4 (X4) coreceptor-using viral variants. We developed a clinical laboratory-based genotypic tropism test for detection of CCR5-using (R5) or X4 variants that utilizes triplicate population(More)
Benztropine (Cogentin ) was evaluated for its ability to block cocaine's physiological and subjective effects in humans. In healthy, recreational users of cocaine, placebo, or benztropine (1, 2, and 4 mg orally) was given 2 hr before subjects self-administered 0.9 mg/kg of cocaine intranasally. Measurements were made for 2 hr following cocaine(More)
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