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The generation of the tubular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires homotypic membrane fusion that is mediated by the dynamin-like, membrane-bound GTPase atlastin (ATL). Here, we have determined crystal structures of the cytosolic segment of human ATL1, which give insight into the mechanism of membrane fusion. The structures reveal a GTPase(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress plays a causal role in vascular injury in diabetes mellitus, but the mechanisms and targets remain poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS Exposure of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells to either peroxynitrite (ONOO-) or high glucose significantly inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a network of tubules and sheets that requires homotypic membrane fusion to be maintained. In metazoans, this process is mediated by dynamin-like guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) called atlastins (ATLs), which are also required to maintain ER morphology. Previous work suggested that the dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p was(More)
MOTIVATION mRNA sequences and expressed sequence tags represent some of the most abundant experimental data for identifying genes and alternatively spliced products in metazoans. These transcript sequences are frequently studied by aligning them to a genomic sequence template. For existing programs, error-prone, polymorphic and cross-species data, as well(More)
Social tagging recommendation is an urgent and useful enabling technology for Web 2.0. In this paper, we present a systematic study of low-order tensor decomposition approach that are specifically targeted at the very sparse data problem in tagging recommendation problem. Low-order polynomials have low functional complexity, are uniquely capable of(More)
BACKGROUND Aberrant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with several cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. The mechanism by which aberrant ER stress develops is poorly understood. This study investigated whether dysfunction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) causes aberrant ER stress and atherosclerosis in vivo. METHODS AND(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can exit the self-renewal programme, through the action of signalling molecules, at any given time and differentiate along the three germ layer lineages. We have systematically investigated the specific roles of three signalling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, in promoting the transition of hESCs into the(More)
BACKGROUND Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency is reported to uncouple the enzymatic activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in diabetes mellitus. The mechanism by which diabetes actually leads to BH4 deficiency remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that diabetes reduced BH4 by increasing 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of guanosine(More)
Smoking is the only modifiable risk factor that is associated with the development, expansion and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the causative link between cigarette smoke and AAA is unknown. Here we report a causative link between smoking and AAA in vivo. Acute infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) or nicotine, a major component of(More)
This study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of thromboxane A2 receptor (TP)-induced insulin resistance in endothelial cells. Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or mouse aortic endothelial cells to either IBOP or U46619, two structurally related thromboxane A(2) mimetics, significantly reduced insulin-stimulated(More)