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The generation of the tubular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires homotypic membrane fusion that is mediated by the dynamin-like, membrane-bound GTPase atlastin (ATL). Here, we have determined crystal structures of the cytosolic segment of human ATL1, which give insight into the mechanism of membrane fusion. The structures reveal a GTPase(More)
Analyzing 916 CDOs issued from January 1997 to December 2007, we find that direct outputs from a rating agency model are more straightforward and accurate than actual ratings assigned to CDOs. Actual sizes of AAA rated tranches are on average 12.1% larger than implied by the rating agency model. These adjustments to the rating agency model are difficult to(More)
OBJECTIVE The oxidation of LDLs is considered a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. How LDL oxidation contributes to atherosclerosis remains poorly defined. Here we report that oxidized and glycated LDL (HOG-LDL) causes aberrant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed HOG-LDL-triggered ER(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can exit the self-renewal programme, through the action of signalling molecules, at any given time and differentiate along the three germ layer lineages. We have systematically investigated the specific roles of three signalling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, in promoting the transition of hESCs into the(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a network of tubules and sheets that requires homotypic membrane fusion to be maintained. In metazoans, this process is mediated by dynamin-like guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) called atlastins (ATLs), which are also required to maintain ER morphology. Previous work suggested that the dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p was(More)
In all eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a tubular network whose generation requires the fusion of ER membranes. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the membrane-bound GTPase ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 (RHD3) is a potential candidate to mediate ER fusion. In addition, Arabidopsis has two tissue-specific isoforms of RHD3, namely RHD3-like(More)
RATIONALE AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor and ubiquitously expressed in vascular cells. Recent studies suggest that AMPK activation improves endothelial function by counteracting oxidative stress in endothelial cells. How AMPK suppresses oxidative stress remains to be established. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to examine the(More)
Cell signalling requires efficient Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores through Ca2+ release channels, as well as predicted counter-movement of ions across the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum membrane to balance the transient negative potential generated by Ca2+ release. Ca2+ release channels were cloned more than 15 years ago, whereas the(More)
MOTIVATION mRNA sequences and expressed sequence tags represent some of the most abundant experimental data for identifying genes and alternatively spliced products in metazoans. These transcript sequences are frequently studied by aligning them to a genomic sequence template. For existing programs, error-prone, polymorphic and cross-species data, as well(More)