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Demand side management includes not only many links but also many participators and a great deal of work of data processing, statistics and analysis, it is necessary to provide an effective tool for implementing DSM to construct DSM decision supporting system. This paper studies the general frame, software architecture, hardware platform and main function(More)
Climate warming leads to permafrost degradation and permafrost melting phase transition, resulting in an increasing number of landslides. This study uses the road segments and road area at the intersection between Bei'an-Heihe Highway and the northwest section of the Lesser Khingan Range in north China as the study area. By means of geological survey(More)
All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing December 2005 ESMAP Reports are published to communicate the results of ESMAP's work to the development community with the least possible delay. The typescript of the paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal documents. Some(More)
—With the development of smart grid, demand-side resources (DSR) will play an increasingly important role in the power balance of supply and demand. In addition, the requirement of a low-carbon smart grid means some policy backgrounds , such as carbon emissions trading (CET), should not be ignored. Under these circumstances, it is a good idea to construct a(More)
Since the development of large scale power grid interconnections and power markets, research on available transfer capability (ATC) has attracted great attention. The challenges for accurate assessment of ATC originate from the numerous uncertainties in electricity generation, transmission, distribution and utilization sectors. Power system uncertainties(More)
With the development of the smart grid in China, new opportunities for responsive industrial loads to participate in the provision of ancillary services (AS) will become accessible. This paper summarizes AS in China and analyzes the necessary characteristics and advantages of industrial users to provide AS according to their response mechanism. Cement(More)