Zhao-Xun Liang

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The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-AMP [corrected] synthesized by the diadenylate cyclase domain was discovered recently [corrected] as a messenger molecule for signaling DNA breaks in Bacillus subtilis. By searching bacterial genomes, we identified a family of DHH/DHHA1 domain proteins (COG3387) that co-occur with a subset of the diadenylate cyclase domain(More)
Klebsiella pneumoniae causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly amongst hospitalized individuals. The principle mechanism for pathogenesis in hospital environments involves the formation of biofilms, primarily on implanted medical devices. In this study, we constructed a transposon mutant library in a clinical isolate, K. pneumoniae(More)
The crystal structure of NAD(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus strain LLD-R (htADH) was determined using X-ray diffraction data at a resolution of 2.35 A. The structure of homotetrameric htADH is highly homologous to those of bacterial and archaeal homotetrameric alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and also to the mammalian(More)
EAL domain proteins are the major phosphodiesterases for maintaining the cellular concentration of second-messenger cyclic di-GMP in bacteria. Given the pivotal roles of EAL domains in the regulation of many bacterial behaviors, the elucidation of their catalytic and regulatory mechanisms would contribute to the effort of deciphering the cyclic di-GMP(More)
Bacteria can sense environmental cues and alter their physiology accordingly through the use of signal transduction pathways involving second messenger nucleotides. One broadly conserved second messenger is cyclic-di-AMP (c-di-AMP) which regulates a range of processes including cell wall homeostasis, potassium uptake, DNA repair, fatty acid synthesis,(More)
The Bacillus subtilis protein YybT (or GdpP) and its homologs were recently established as stress signaling proteins that exert their biological effect by degrading the bacterial messenger cyclic di-AMP. YybT homologs contain a small Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domain (~80 amino acids) that can bind b-type heme with 1:1 stoichiometry despite the small size of the(More)
EAL domain-based cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-specific phosphodiesterases play important roles in bacteria by regulating the cellular concentration of the dinucleotide messenger c-di-GMP. EAL domains belong to a family of (beta/alpha)(8) barrel fold enzymes that contain a functional active site loop (loop 6) for substrate binding and catalysis. By examining the(More)
The cytoplasmic protein AxDGC2 regulates cellulose synthesis in the obligate aerobe Acetobacter xylinum by controlling the cellular concentration of the cyclic dinucleotide messenger c-di-GMP. AxDGC2 contains a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain and two putative catalytic domains (GGDEF and EAL) for c-di-GMP metabolism. We found that the PAS domain of AxDGC2 binds a(More)
The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP is a widespread bacterial messenger molecule with potential application as a therapeutic agent for treating bacterial infection. Current enzymatic synthesis of c-di-GMP using mesophilic diguanylate cyclase (DGC) proteins suffers from low production yield due to protein instability and strong product inhibition. Here we(More)
FimX is a multidomain signaling protein required for type IV pilus biogenesis and twitching motility in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FimX is localized to the single pole of the bacterial cell, and the unipolar localization is crucial for the correct assembly of type IV pili. FimX contains a non-catalytic EAL domain that lacks cyclic(More)