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Neonicotinoid insecticides are potent selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Since their introduction in 1991, resistance to neonicotinoids has been slow to develop, but it is now established in some insect field populations such as the planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a major rice pest in many parts of Asia. We have(More)
Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid, are selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used extensively in areas of crop protection and animal health to control a variety of insect pest species. Here, we describe studies performed with nAChR subunits Nlalpha1 and Nlalpha2 cloned from the brown planthopper(More)
Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid, are selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used extensively to control a variety of insect pest species. Previously, we have identified a nAChR point mutation (Y151S) associated with insecticide resistance in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Although this(More)
Abstract The sid-1 (systemic interference defective) gene encodes a transmembrane protein that is an important participator in the systemic RNAi pathway and has been reported in several organisms. In insects, sid-1-like genes were described from Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori and Schistocerca americana, but were not found in Drosophila(More)
Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5' -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately(More)
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the targets of two novel classes of synthetic insecticidal chemicals, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. Isolation of full-length RyR cDNAs is a critical step towards the structural and functional characterization of insect RyRs and an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the species selective(More)
BACKGROUND The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is one of the major rice pests in Asia and has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Understanding resistance mechanisms is essential to the management of this pest. Biochemical and molecular assays were performed in this study to systematically characterize(More)
This article reports the current status of ethiprole resistance in Nilaparvata lugens Stål in the central region of Thailand, together with the associated resistance mechanisms. A resistance survey found that a field population had developed 308.5-fold resistance to ethiprole. Further selection with ethiprole for nine generations in the laboratory led to(More)
Transposable elements (TEs, transposons) are mobile genetic DNA sequences. TEs can insert copies of themselves into new genomic locations and they have the capacity to multiply. Therefore, TEs have been crucial in the shaping of hosts’ current genomes. TEs can be utilized as genetic markers to study population genetic diversity. The rice stem borer Chilo(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of several kinds of insecticides. Based on the mutagenesis studies of Torpedo californica nAChRs and solved structure of a molluscan, glial-derived soluble ACh-binding protein, a model of the agonist site was constructed with contributing amino acids from three distinct loops (A, B, and C) of(More)