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Myosin VI is a reverse direction myosin motor that, as a dimer, moves processively on actin with an average center-of-mass movement of approximately 30 nm for each step. We labeled myosin VI with a single fluorophore on either its motor domain or on the distal of two calmodulins (CaMs) located on its putative lever arm. Using a technique called FIONA(More)
A processive molecular motor must coordinate the enzymatic state of its two catalytic domains in order to prevent premature detachment from its track. For myosin V, internal strain produced when both heads of are attached to an actin track prevents completion of the lever arm swing of the lead head and blocks ADP release. However, this mechanism cannot work(More)
This study examines the steady state activity and in vitro motility of single-headed (S1) and double-headed (HMM) myosin VI constructs within the context of two putative modes of regulation. Phosphorylation of threonine 406 does not alter either the rate of actin filament sliding or the maximal actin-activated ATPase rate of S1 or HMM constructs. Thus, we(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the activities of head, neck and upper trunk muscles during mandibular movements in healthy adults and mandibular asymmetry patients. METHODS Electromyographic integrogram was used to record and analyze the electromyographic activities of the anterior temporal (Ta), posterior temporal (Tp), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), and trapezius(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the activities of head, neck and upper trunk muscles with mandibular movement in normal adults. METHODS The integral data of surface electromyography (EMG) had been recorded to analyze the activities of anterior temporal (Ta), posterior temporal (Tp), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius (TRAP) muscles with mandibular movement(More)
Few studies have been conducted to explore the community composition in denitrifying biocathode. Herein, the microbial communities of denitrifying biocathodes yielding current of 1 mA (reactor C1) and 1.5 mA (reactor C2) were characterized by 454 pyrosequencing. The nitrate removal efficiencies in C1 and C2 were about 93 and 85 %, respectively. The(More)
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high incidence of cervical micrometastases and sometimes metastasizes contralaterally because of the rich lymphatic intercommunications relative to submucosal plexus of oral cavity that freely communicate across the midline, and it can facilitate the spread of neoplastic cells to any area of the neck consequently.(More)
Basonuclin is a zinc finger protein that was thought to be restricted to keratinocytes of stratified squamous epithelia. In epidermis, basonuclin is associated with the nuclei of mitotically active basal cells but not in terminally differentiating keratinocytes. We report here the isolation of a novel form of basonuclin, which we show is also expressed in(More)
Myosin VI contains an inserted sequence that is unique among myosin superfamily members and has been suggested to be a determinant of the reverse directionality and unusual motility of the motor. It is thought that each head of a two-headed myosin VI molecule binds one calmodulin (CaM) by means of a single "IQ motif". Using truncations of the myosin VI(More)
Most polymers solidify into a glassy amorphous state, accompanied by a rapid increase in the viscosity when cooled below the glass transition temperature (T(g)). There is an ongoing debate on whether the T(g) changes with decreasing polymer film thickness and on the origin of the changes. We measured the viscosity of unentangled, short-chain polystyrene(More)