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Hospital-based studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes frequent cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and mortality, but epidemiologic studies have shown less morbidity and mortality. The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of 10,259 recombinant immunoblot assay-confirmed, HCV antibody-positive (HCV+), allogeneic blood donors(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about risks of most specific birth defects among infants born to U.S.-born and foreign-born Hispanic or African-American women. METHODS Using data from a large population-based registry, we explored risks of selected congenital malformation phenotypes in offspring of U.S.-born and foreign-born Hispanic and African-American(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding participation in a prospective study is crucial to maintaining and improving retention rates. In 1990-92, following attempted blood donation at five blood centers, we enrolled 155 HTLV-I, 387 HTLV-II and 799 HTLV seronegative persons in a long-term prospective cohort. METHODS Health questionnaires and physical exams were(More)
Human T-lymphotropic viruses types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) cause chronic infections of T lymphocytes that may lead to leukemia and myelopathy. However, their long-term effects on blood counts and hematopoiesis are poorly understood. We followed 151 HTLV-I-seropositive, 387 HTLV-II-seropositive, and 799 HTLV-seronegative former blood donors from 5 U.S.(More)
We recently discovered the antisense protein of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 2 (APH-2), whose messenger RNA is encoded by the antisense strand of the HTLV-2 genome. We quantified proviral load, level of tax, and APH-2 in a series of blood samples obtained from a cohort of HTLV-2 carriers. We determined whether APH-2 promotes cell proliferation.(More)
BACKGROUND There is a paucity of epidemiologic information about the external ear malformations anotia and microtia. METHODS Using data from a large population-based registry, we explored prevalences and maternal/infant characteristics associated with anotia and microtia. Data were derived from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a(More)
BACKGROUND Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I is the causative agent of HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis, and a number of HAM cases with HTLV-II infection have also been reported. However, despite some reports, it is unclear whether HTLV-I or -II infection is associated with other neurologic manifestations. METHODS An(More)
BACKGROUND Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I and HTLV-II cause chronic human retroviral infections, but few studies have examined the impact of either virus on survival among otherwise healthy individuals. The authors analyzed all-cause and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of 155 HTLV-I, 387 HTLV-II, and 799 seronegative subjects. METHODS Vital(More)
BACKGROUND Although many studies have observed variations in the prevalence of specific malformations by sex, there is a lack of population-based data on potential malformation prevalence differences by sex at birth. METHODS Our objective was to explore differences in the prevalence of structural congenital malformation phenotypes between sexes in a(More)
BACKGROUND West Nile virus (WNV) infection is asymptomatic in most individuals, with a minority developing symptoms ranging from WNV fever to serious neuroinvasive disease. This study investigated the impact of host HLA on the outcome of WNV disease. METHODS A cohort of 210 non-Hispanic mostly white WNV(+) subjects from Canada and the U.S. were typed for(More)