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This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the biology of the physiologically and pharmacologically important transport system termed the "reduced folate carrier" (RFC). The ubiquitously expressed RFC has unequivocally established itself as the major transport system in mammalian cells and tissues for a group of compounds including folate(More)
Folates are essential for life and folate deficiency contributes to a host of health problems including cardiovascular disease, fetal abnormalities, neurological disorders, and cancer. Antifolates, represented by methotrexate, continue to occupy a unique niche among the modern day pharmacopoeia for cancer along with other pathological conditions. This(More)
The RFC (reduced folate carrier) is the principal mechanism by which folates and clinically used antifolates are delivered to mammalian cells. hRFC (human RFC) is subject to complex transcriptional controls and exists as homo-oligomer. To explore the post-transcriptional regulation of hRFC by exogenous folates, hRFC-null HeLa cells were stably transfected(More)
This review summarizes the biology of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). PCFT was identified in 2006 as the primary transporter for intestinal absorption of dietary folates, as mutations in PCFT are causal in hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) syndrome. Since 2006, there have been major advances in understanding the mechanistic roles of(More)
The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) is a folate-proton symporter with an acidic pH optimum, approximating the microenvironments of solid tumors. We tested 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates with one to six carbons in the bridge region for inhibition of proliferation in isogenic Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HeLa cells expressing(More)
ZntA from Escherichia coli is a member of the P1B-type ATPase family that confers resistance specifically to Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cd2 salts by active efflux across the cytoplasmic membrane. P1B-type ATPases are important for homeostasis of metal ions such as Cu+, Ag+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ Cu2+, and Co2+, with different subgroups showing specificity for different(More)
ZntA from Escherichia coli is a P-type ATPase that confers resistance to Pb(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) in vivo. We had previously shown that purified ZntA shows ATP hydrolysis activity with the metal ions Pb(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II). In this study, we utilized the acylphosphate formation activity of ZntA to further investigate the substrate specificity of ZntA.(More)
Uptake of 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolates with four or three bridge carbons [compound 1 (C1) and compound 2 (C2), respectively] into solid tumors by the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) represents a novel therapeutic strategy that harnesses the acidic tumor microenvironment. Although these compounds are not substrates for(More)
6-Substituted classical pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates with a three- to six-carbon bridge between the heterocycle and the benzoyl-L-glutamate (compounds 2-5, respectively) were synthesized starting from methyl 4-formylbenzoate and a Wittig reaction with the appropriate triphenylphosphonium bromide, followed by reduction and conversion to the(More)
The human proton-coupled folate transporter (hPCFT) is expressed in solid tumours and is active at pHs characterizing the tumour microenvironment. Recent attention focused on exploiting hPCFT for targeting solid tumours with novel cytotoxic anti-folates. hPCFT has 12 transmembrane domains (TMDs) and forms homo-oligomers with functional significance. The(More)