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The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of(More)
Focal adhesions (FAs) are integrin-based transmembrane assemblies that connect a cell to its extracellular matrix (ECM). They are mechanosensors through which cells exert actin cytoskeleton-mediated traction forces to sense the ECM stiffness. Interestingly, FAs themselves are dynamic structures that adapt their growth in response to mechanical force. It is(More)
Extensive studies from different fields reveal that many macromolecules, especially enzymes, show slow transitions among different conformations. This phenomenon is named such things as dynamic disorder, heterogeneity, hysteretic or mnemonic enzymes across these different fields, and has been directly demonstrated by single molecule enzymology and NMR(More)
Recent breakthroughs of cell phenotype reprogramming impose theoretical challenges on unravelling the complexity of large circuits maintaining cell phenotypes coupled at many different epigenetic and gene regulation levels, and quantitatively describing the phenotypic transition dynamics. A popular picture proposed by Waddington views cell differentiation(More)
A protein undergoes conformational dynamics with multiple time scales, which results in fluctuating enzyme activities. Recent studies in single-molecule enzymology have observe this "age-old" dynamic disorder phenomenon directly. However, the single-molecule technique has its limitation. To be able to observe this molecular effect with real biochemical(More)
The microtubule assembly process has been extensively studied, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. The structure of an artificially generated sheet polymer that alternates two types of lateral contacts and that directly converts into microtubules, has been proposed to correspond to the intermediate sheet structure observed(More)
The bacterial flagellar motor plays a crucial role in both bacterial locomotion and chemotaxis. Recent experiments reveal that the switching dynamics of the motor depend on the rotation speed of the motor, and thus the motor torque, nonmonotonically. Here we present a unified mathematical model which treats motor torque generation based on experimental(More)
The dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules and the mechanical properties of these polymers are essential for many key cellular processes. Mathematical and computational modeling, especially coupled mechanochemical modeling, has contributed significantly to our understanding of microtubule dynamics. However, critical discrepancies exist between(More)
Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA Center for Complex Network Research, Departments of Physics, Biology, and Computer Science, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.(More)