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KaKs_Calculator is a software package that calculates nonsynonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitution rates through model selection and model averaging. Since existing methods for this estimation adopt their specific mutation (substitution) models that consider different evolutionary features, leading to diverse estimates, KaKs_Calculator implements a(More)
This paper compares different similarity measures used for trajectory clustering in outdoor surveillance scenes. Six similarity measures are presented and the performance is evaluated by Correct Clustering Rate (CCR) and Time Cost (TC). The experimental results demonstrate that in outdoor surveillance scenes, the simpler PCA+Euclidean distance is competent(More)
Slow Feature Analysis (SFA) extracts slowly varying features from a quickly varying input signal. It has been successfully applied to modeling the visual receptive fields of the cortical neurons. Sufficient experimental results in neuroscience suggest that the temporal slowness principle is a general learning principle in visual perception. In this paper,(More)
BACKGROUND Approximate methods for estimating nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates (Ka and Ks) among protein-coding sequences have adopted different mutation (substitution) models. In the past two decades, several methods have been proposed but they have not considered unequal transitional substitutions (between the two purines, A and G, or the(More)
We present an integrated stand-alone software package named KaKs_Calculator 2.0 as an updated version. It incorporates 17 methods for the calculation of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates; among them, we added our modified versions of several widely used methods as the gamma series including gamma-NG, gamma-LWL, gamma-MLWL, gamma-LPB,(More)
For a grammar-based approach to the recognition of visual events, there are two major limitations that prevent it from real application. One is that the event rules are predefined by domain experts, which means huge manual cost. The other is that the commonly used grammar can only handle sequential relations between subevents, which is inadequate to(More)
In this paper, a generic rule induction framework based on trajectory series analysis is proposed to learn the event rules. First the trajectories acquired by a tracking system are mapped into a set of primitive events that represent some basic motion patterns of moving object. Then a minimum description length (MDL) principle based grammar induction(More)
Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB). Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant(More)