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Aim Predictions of ecosystem responses to climate warming are often made using gap models, which are among the most effective tools for assessing the effects of climate change on forest composition and structure. Gap models do not generally account for broad-scale effects such as the spatial configuration of the simulated forest ecosystems, disturbance, and(More)
Changbai Natural Reserve in northeastern China provides an excellent opportunity to explore how temperate and boreal forest ecosystems in northeastern China will evolve and recover over large spatial and temporal scales. Such studies are increasingly needed to design scientifically sound forest management and restoration plans in this region. Long-term (300(More)
Seedling dynamics play a crucial role in determining species distributions and coexistence. Exploring causes of variation in seedling dynamics can therefore provide key insights into the factors affecting these phenomena. We examined the relative importance of biotic neighborhood processes and habitat heterogeneity using survival data for 5,827 seedlings in(More)
Tree survival plays a central role in forest ecosystems. Although many factors such as tree size, abiotic and biotic neighborhoods have been proposed as being important in explaining patterns of tree survival, their contributions are still subject to debate. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the relative importance of tree size, local(More)
The types of natural forests have long been suggested to shape below-ground microbial communities in forest ecosystem. However, detailed information on the impressionable bacterial groups and the potential mechanisms of these influences are still missing. The present study aims to deepen the current understanding on the soil microbial communities under four(More)
BACKGROUND Soil water and nitrogen (N) are considered to be the main environmental factors limiting plant growth and photosynthetic capacity. However, less is known about the interactive effects of soil water and N on tree growth and photosynthetic response in the temperate ecosystem. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We applied N and water, alone and in(More)
Although trait information has been widely used to explore underlying mechanisms of forest community structure, most studies have focused on local patterns of phylogenetic or functional alpha diversity. Investigations of functional beta diversity, on the other hand, have not been conducted at local scales in a spatially explicit way. In this study, we(More)
Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and(More)
Spatially explicit consideration of species distribution can significantly add to our understanding of species coexistence. In this paper, we evaluated the relative importance of habitat heterogeneity and other clustering processes (e.g., dispersal limitation, collectively called the non-habitat clustering process) in explaining the spatial distribution(More)
Based on the investigation data from a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest plot in Changbai Mountains of China, the dominant species Korean pine and Tilia amurensis were chosen as research objects. One point pattern analysis method, O-ring statistics, was used to analyze the spatial patterns of the species in three vertical(More)