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Acquisition of the intestinal microbiota begins at birth, and a stable microbial community develops from a succession of key organisms. Disruption of the microbiota during maturation by low-dose antibiotic exposure can alter host metabolism and adiposity. We now show that low-dose penicillin (LDP), delivered from birth, induces metabolic alterations and(More)
Antibiotics administered in low doses have been widely used as growth promoters in the agricultural industry since the 1950s, yet the mechanisms for this effect are unclear. Because antimicrobial agents of different classes and varying activity are effective across several vertebrate species, we proposed that such subtherapeutic administration alters the(More)
For psoriasis, an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the skin, the microbial biota has not been defined using cultivation-independent methods. We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR for archaea and bacteria to examine the microbiota of normal and psoriatic skin. From 6 patients, 19 cutaneous samples (13 from diseased skin and 6 from normal skin) were obtained.(More)
Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is a major public health problem that is associated with sudden cardiac death and requires surgical implantation of artificial pacemakers. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause SND. Most SND occurs in the setting of heart failure and hypertension, conditions that are marked by elevated(More)
The microbial ecology of human skin is complex, but little is known about its species composition. We examined the diversity of the skin biota from the superficial volar left and right forearms in six healthy subjects using broad-range small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) PCR-based sequencing of randomly selected clones. For the initial 1,221 clones(More)
Diabetes increases oxidant stress and doubles the risk of dying after myocardial infarction, but the mechanisms underlying increased mortality are unknown. Mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes developed profound heart rate slowing and doubled mortality compared with controls after myocardial infarction. Oxidized Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein(More)
To determine whether protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) modulates volume-sensitive chloride current (I(Cl.vol)) in human atrial myocytes and to identify the PTKs involved, we studied the effects of broad-spectrum and selective PTK inhibitors and the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor orthovanadate (VO(4)(-3)). I(Cl.vol) evoked by hyposmotic bath(More)
The TRPC family of non-selective cation channels has been suggested to play a key role in the responses to alpha1-adrenoceptor stimulation of vascular smooth muscle. However, there are still very few reports of non-selective cation currents activated by alpha1-AR in resistance arteries. Here, we examine the expression of TRPC channels and the currents(More)
OBJECTIVE Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin/orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, which is likely the result of an autoimmune process. Recently, concern has been raised over reports of narcolepsy in northern Europe following H1N1 vaccination. METHODS The study is a retrospective analysis of narcolepsy onset in subjects diagnosed in Beijing,(More)
In Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians, narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency is tightly associated with the DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 haplotype. Studies in African-Americans suggest a primary effect of DQB1*06:02, but this observation has been difficult to confirm in other populations because of high linkage disequilibrium between DRB1*15:01/3 and(More)