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The animal gut commonly contains a large reservoir of symbiotic microbes. Although these microbes have obvious functions in digestion and immune defence, gut microbes can also affect behaviour. Here, we explore whether gut microbiota has a role in kin recognition. We assessed whether relatedness, familiarity and food eaten during development altered(More)
It is unknown why females mate with multiple males when mating is frequently costly and a single copulation often provides enough sperm to fertilize all a female's eggs. One possibility is that remating increases the fitness of offspring, because fertilization success is biased toward the sperm of high-fitness males. We show that female Drosophila(More)
Sperm competition is widespread and has played an important role in shaping male reproductive characters such as testis size and numbers of sperm produced, and this is reflected in the rapid evolution of many reproductive genes. Additionally, sperm competition has been implicated in the rapid evolution of seminal fluids. However, our understanding of the(More)
Males and females share a genome and express many shared phenotypic traits, which are often selected in opposite directions. This generates intralocus sexual conflict that may constrain trait evolution by preventing the sexes from reaching their optimal phenotype. Furthermore, if present across multiple loci, intralocus sexual conflict can result in a(More)
Males in many taxa are known to exhibit behavioural plasticity in response to the perceived intensity of sperm competition, reflected in Drosophila melanogaster by increased copulation duration following prior exposure to a rival. We tested the prediction that males do not adjust their copulation effort in response to the presence of a competitor in(More)
Investigating the ecology of leaf-litter dwelling insects is very difficult without destructive sampling of their habitat. Here, we describe the use of a metal-detector technique to study the overwintering survival of the case-bearing, leaf-litter dwelling larvae of Cryptocephalus coryli (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Three-hundred and thirty captive-reared(More)
Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically(More)
Maternally inherited symbionts are common in arthropods and many have important roles in host adaptation. The observation that specific symbiont lineages infect distantly related host species implies new interactions are commonly established by lateral transfer events. However, studies have shown that symbionts often perform poorly in novel hosts. We(More)