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This study examined the effects of cocaine use during the second trimester of pregnancy on cerebral neocortical volume and density, and total number of neocortical neurons and glia in offspring. We also evaluated the extent of postnatal recovery of cytoarchitectural abnormalities previously observed in the neocortex of two-month-old primates born from(More)
Previous studies have shown that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RSD) exerts a detrimental effect on some memory tasks. However, whether post-learning RSD impairs memory for fear extinction, an important model of inhibitory learning, remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the effects of post-extinction RSD from 0 to 6 h and 6 to 12(More)
BACKGROUND Mounting evidence indicates that long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications can alter the morphology and connectivity of cellular processes in the cerebral cortex. The cytoskeleton plays an essential role in the maintenance of cellular morphology and is subject to regulation by intracellular pathways associated with neurotransmitter(More)
The projections of Dogiel type II myenteric neurons to the mucosa of the guinea-pig ileum were quantified by combining retrograde transport of DiI, in vitro, with immunohistochemistry. After DiI application to the mucosa over an area of 1.5 x 10 mm2, virtually all (> 97%) calbindin-immunoreactive Dogiel type II neurons in the myenteric plexus underneath the(More)
Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry was used to localize immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in whole-mount preparations of myenteric plexus and circular muscle from guinea-pig ileum. NOS immunoreactivity was patchily distributed in myenteric neurons and was not specifically associated with any subcellular organelle or with the plasma(More)
Double-labelling immunohistochemistry and retrograde transport of the carbocyanine dye, DiI, were used to establish the pathways of submucous neurons to the mucosa of the guinea-pig small intestine. Following the application of DiI to a villus, DiI-labelled nerve cell bodies were found in the submucous plexus up to 8.3 mm circumferentially and 3.8 mm(More)
Motor neurons that innervate the longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig ileum were identified by retrograde transport from the longitudinal muscle plexus in organotypic culture. Motor neurons had short projections, less than 3.5 mm long, and never had Dogiel type II morphology; most labeled neurons had morphological characteristics of Dogiel type I neurons.(More)
Previously, we demonstrated that chronic exposure of fetal monkeys to cocaine could result in development of the neocortex with significant cytoarchitectonic abnormalities [Synapse, 21 (1995) 435-444]. In the present study, we examined the developmental time-frame within which neocortical cytoarchitecture is susceptible to modifications by prenatal cocaine(More)
We examined the long-term effects of a short-lasting (approximately 24 h) inflammatory insult generated by injections of 0.25% carrageenan (1 microl/g) into the hindpaws of newborn (P0) rat pups. At P60 animals which experienced this early inflammatory insult showed significant alterations in the withdrawal responses to noxious stimulation of the affected(More)
This study examined the effect of cocaine on cell proliferation in the fetal monkey cerebral wall. Pregnant monkeys received cocaine daily (10 mg/kg, orally, in fruit treats, at 07.00 h and 19.00 h) beginning on the 40th day of pregnancy (E40). The control animals received fruit treats only. One set of monkeys was used to examine the state of cell(More)