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Metabolomics studies hold promise for the discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Here we used a metabolomics approach to generate unbiased small-molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid(More)
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary l-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent(More)
Post-translational modification and functional impairment of proteins through carbamylation is thought to promote vascular dysfunction during end-stage renal disease. Cyanate, a reactive species in equilibrium with urea, carbamylates protein lysine residues to form ε-carbamyllysine (homocitrulline), altering protein structure and function. We now report the(More)
Circulating trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels are strongly associated with atherosclerosis. We now examine genetic, dietary, and hormonal factors regulating TMAO levels. We demonstrate that two flavin mono-oxygenase family members, FMO1 and FMO3, oxidize trimethylamine (TMA), derived from gut flora metabolism of choline, to TMAO. Further, we show that(More)
BACKGROUND Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to determine the prognostic value of TMAO and its dietary precursors, choline and betaine, in heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS In 112 patients with chronic systolic HF with comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation, we measured plasma TMAO, choline,(More)
RATIONALE Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbial-dependent metabolite of dietary choline, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), and l-carnitine, is elevated in chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and associated with coronary artery disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE To both investigate the clinical prognostic value of TMAO in subjects with versus without CKD,(More)
L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, was recently reported to accelerate atherosclerosis via a metaorganismal pathway involving gut microbial trimethylamine (TMA) formation and host hepatic conversion into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein, we show that following L-carnitine ingestion, γ-butyrobetaine (γBB) is produced as an intermediary metabolite by(More)
Circulating levels of the gut microbe-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) have recently been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Here, we performed transcriptional profiling in mouse models of altered reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and serendipitously identified the TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) as a(More)
BACKGROUND Altered intestinal function is prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF), but its role in adverse outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVES This study investigated the potential pathophysiological contributions of intestinal microbiota in HF. METHODS We examined the relationship between fasting plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and all-cause(More)