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OBJECTIVES A prospective study of children examined both before and after a flood disaster in Bangladesh is used to test the hypothesis that stressful events play a causal role in the development of behavioral disorders in children. METHODS Six months before the disaster, structured measures of selected behavioral problems were made during an(More)
OBJECTIVE The effects of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women were evaluated in a population where vitamin A deficiency is not endemic. METHODS A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation was carried out in 118 offspring of HIV-infected women in Durban, South(More)
In a historical cohort study of 300,000 19-year-old men exposed to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 and examined at military induction, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal and early postnatal nutrition determines subsequent obesity. Outcomes were opposite depending on the time of exposure. During the last trimester of pregnancy and the first months of life,(More)
Intravaginal practices such as "dry sex" and douching have been suggested as a risk factor that may increase women's susceptibility to HIV infection. These behaviours appear common in different populations across sub-Saharan Africa, where practices include the use of antiseptic preparations, traditional medicines, or the insertion of fingers or cloths into(More)
Sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are the primary methods for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is the primary method for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) worldwide. The poor sensitivity of the former and the poor specificity of the latter warrant the development of new tests and strategies to(More)
The specificity of the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is adversely affected by bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) using TB-specific antigens promise higher specificity. We compared a new IGRA and TST in 184(More)
The risk of family history of ischemic heart disease independent of other well described risk factors has remained difficult to quantitate. Significant coronary artery disease was determined by coronary arteriography to be present in 223 patients and absent in 57 control subjects. Age, sex, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking and the(More)
At least two spontaneous abortions were karyotyped in 273 women during cytogenetic surveys in New York City and Honolulu. These pairs were analyzed using maximum-likelihood logistic-regression analysis to adjust for maternal age and location. There was a significantly increased risk for a chromosomally normal spontaneous abortion after a previous abortion(More)
We are prospectively examining the relation between environmental lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in cohorts of women exposed to a wide range of air lead concentrations. Titova Mitrovica, Yugoslavia, is the site of a large lead smelter, refinery, and battery factory. At midpregnancy, 602 women in T. Mitrovica and 900 women in Pristina, a(More)