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We are prospectively examining the relation between environmental lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in cohorts of women exposed to a wide range of air lead concentrations. Titova Mitrovica, Yugoslavia, is the site of a large lead smelter, refinery, and battery factory. At midpregnancy, 602 women in T. Mitrovica and 900 women in Pristina, a(More)
We are happy to see the International Journal of Epidemiology reprint one of our papers 1 some 40 years after publication. We are not among the deeply sceptical who would deny that understanding marches on with time. Sometimes, as with peptic ulcer, it is a slow march. Some of the mist and mystery surrounding the condition, as well as a degree of disbelief(More)
Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse reproductive outcome. Despite evidence that negative life events increase risk for a number of medical disorders, their role in pregnancy disruption has not been investigated. The present study tested an a priori hypothesis that recent negative life events increase the odds of spontaneous abortion of a(More)
The frequency of drinking alcohol among 616 women who aborted spontaneously (cases) was compared with that among 632 women who delivered after at least 28 weeks gestation (controls). 17.0% of cases reported drinking twice a week or more during pregnancy whereas among controls, only 8.1% of women reported drinking twice a week or more. The hypothesis that(More)
We begin by defining "biological markers" for the purposes of the present review, distinguishing markers from other types of information, such as subject reports or conventional clinical data. We find the distinctions to be hazy. Next, from the standpoint of epidemiologists, we set out circumstances in which exposure markers might be needed, suggesting(More)
We obtained data from 111 gay men who entered a longitudinal study of the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without clinical evidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and examined them regularly over a 36-month period. Using a Cox proportional-hazard regression model to compare cumulative risk of mortality in subjects with(More)
The effect of birth order on educational outcome in the Netherlands is reported for two major social classes, manual and non-manual. The rates of school failure (those who attended schools for the mentally retarded and who failed lower school) were studied in a population of some 200,000 young adult Dutch males born between 1944 and 1946 and whose families(More)
All 995 persons with Down's syndrome who died in the United States during 1976 and whose death certificates listed Down's syndrome as the underlying or a contributing cause of death were identified. This allowed the underlying causes of death of 793 affected persons to be analysed and compared to deaths in the whole US population for that year. Mortality(More)