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OBJECTIVES A prospective study of children examined both before and after a flood disaster in Bangladesh is used to test the hypothesis that stressful events play a causal role in the development of behavioral disorders in children. METHODS Six months before the disaster, structured measures of selected behavioral problems were made during an(More)
Intravaginal practices such as "dry sex" and douching have been suggested as a risk factor that may increase women's susceptibility to HIV infection. These behaviours appear common in different populations across sub-Saharan Africa, where practices include the use of antiseptic preparations, traditional medicines, or the insertion of fingers or cloths into(More)
OBJECTIVE The effects of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity of children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women were evaluated in a population where vitamin A deficiency is not endemic. METHODS A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation was carried out in 118 offspring of HIV-infected women in Durban, South(More)
BACKGROUND Data are limited on the female condom's effectiveness against STDs. GOAL The goal was to compare STD rates between women given small-group education on, and free supplies of, either female or male condoms. STUDY DESIGN Female patients at an STD clinic (n = 1442) were randomly assigned to condom type and followed via medical records for STDs(More)
As life expectancy for HIV-infected persons improves, studies in sub-Saharan Africa show that a considerable proportion of HIV-positive women and men desire to have children. Integrating sexual and reproductive health care into HIV services has until now emphasized the right of women to make informed choices about their reproductive lives and the right of(More)
In a historical cohort study of 300,000 19-year-old men exposed to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 and examined at military induction, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal and early postnatal nutrition determines subsequent obesity. Outcomes were opposite depending on the time of exposure. During the last trimester of pregnancy and the first months of life,(More)
  • Z A Stein
  • 1990
Efforts to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection have thus far focused on modifying sexual behaviors and the use of condoms. While the experience of family planners, particularly in those countries most threatened by heterosexual HIV transmission, has shown that the most effective measures of pregnancy prevention(More)
BACKGROUND Acquired HIV-specific cell-mediated immune responses have been observed in exposed-uninfected individuals, and it has been inferred, but not demonstrated, that these responses constitute a part of natural protective immunity to HIV. This inference was tested prospectively in the natural exposure setting of maternal-infant HIV transmission in a(More)
The specificity of the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is adversely affected by bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) using TB-specific antigens promise higher specificity. We compared a new IGRA and TST in 184(More)
At least two spontaneous abortions were karyotyped in 273 women during cytogenetic surveys in New York City and Honolulu. These pairs were analyzed using maximum-likelihood logistic-regression analysis to adjust for maternal age and location. There was a significantly increased risk for a chromosomally normal spontaneous abortion after a previous abortion(More)