Zena A. Stein

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We are prospectively examining the relation between environmental lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in cohorts of women exposed to a wide range of air lead concentrations. Titova Mitrovica, Yugoslavia, is the site of a large lead smelter, refinery, and battery factory. At midpregnancy, 602 women in T. Mitrovica and 900 women in Pristina, a(More)
We begin by defining "biological markers" for the purposes of the present review, distinguishing markers from other types of information, such as subject reports or conventional clinical data. We find the distinctions to be hazy. Next, from the standpoint of epidemiologists, we set out circumstances in which exposure markers might be needed, suggesting(More)
BACKGROUND Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for HIV-positive women and men often neglect their fertility desires. We examined factors associated with pregnancy intent among recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 106) and men (N = 91) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in an SRH intervention conducted in public sector HIV(More)
A recent multi-country study on hormonal contraceptives (HC) and HIV acquisition and transmission among African HIV-serodiscordant couples reported a statistically significant doubling of risk for HIV acquisition among women as well as transmission from women to men for injectable contraceptives. Together with a prior cohort study on African women seeking(More)
Long-term exposure to high concentrations of lead results in renal dysfunction. During a prospective study of environmental lead and pregnancy outcomes in 1502 women residing in two towns in Yugoslavia, we explored whether moderate exposure to lead results in increased rates of proteinuria. The geometric mean blood lead concentrations (BPb) were 17.1 and(More)