Zena A. Stein

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In a historical cohort study of 300,000 19-year-old men exposed to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 and examined at military induction, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal and early postnatal nutrition determines subsequent obesity. Outcomes were opposite depending on the time of exposure. During the last trimester of pregnancy and the first months of life,(More)
Sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are the primary methods for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is the primary method for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) worldwide. The poor sensitivity of the former and the poor specificity of the latter warrant the development of new tests and strategies to(More)
Intravaginal practices such as "dry sex" and douching have been suggested as a risk factor that may increase women's susceptibility to HIV infection. These behaviours appear common in different populations across sub-Saharan Africa, where practices include the use of antiseptic preparations, traditional medicines, or the insertion of fingers or cloths into(More)
The specificity of the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is adversely affected by bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) using TB-specific antigens promise higher specificity. We compared a new IGRA and TST in 184(More)
OBJECTIVES A prospective study of children examined both before and after a flood disaster in Bangladesh is used to test the hypothesis that stressful events play a causal role in the development of behavioral disorders in children. METHODS Six months before the disaster, structured measures of selected behavioral problems were made during an(More)
The risk of family history of ischemic heart disease independent of other well described risk factors has remained difficult to quantitate. Significant coronary artery disease was determined by coronary arteriography to be present in 223 patients and absent in 57 control subjects. Age, sex, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking and the(More)
The morphologic features of a consecutive series of 3,472 singleton spontaneous abortions are described. Of the total, 21% consisted of well-formed fetuses (over 30 mm long), 27.9% had no identifiable fetal tissues, 34.2% consisted of fetal membranes only, and the remainder, 16.8%, consisted of a variety of embryonic types. The rate of focal malformations(More)
  • Z A Stein
  • American journal of public health
  • 1990
Efforts to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection have thus far focused on modifying sexual behaviors and the use of condoms. While the experience of family planners, particularly in those countries most threatened by heterosexual HIV transmission, has shown that the most effective measures of pregnancy prevention(More)
BACKGROUND Data are limited on the female condom's effectiveness against STDs. GOAL The goal was to compare STD rates between women given small-group education on, and free supplies of, either female or male condoms. STUDY DESIGN Female patients at an STD clinic (n = 1442) were randomly assigned to condom type and followed via medical records for STDs(More)
OBJECTIVE To test a priori hypotheses that miscarrying women are at increased risk for a first or recurrent episode of major depressive disorder in the 6 months following loss and that this increased risk is greater for childless women, women with prior reproductive loss, and women aged 35 years or older; and to evaluate whether risk varies by time of(More)