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We are prospectively examining the relation between environmental lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in cohorts of women exposed to a wide range of air lead concentrations. Titova Mitrovica, Yugoslavia, is the site of a large lead smelter, refinery, and battery factory. At midpregnancy, 602 women in T. Mitrovica and 900 women in Pristina, a(More)
The frequency of drinking alcohol among 616 women who aborted spontaneously (cases) was compared with that among 632 women who delivered after at least 28 weeks gestation (controls). 17.0% of cases reported drinking twice a week or more during pregnancy whereas among controls, only 8.1% of women reported drinking twice a week or more. The hypothesis that(More)
We obtained data from 111 gay men who entered a longitudinal study of the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without clinical evidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and examined them regularly over a 36-month period. Using a Cox proportional-hazard regression model to compare cumulative risk of mortality in subjects with(More)
We begin by defining "biological markers" for the purposes of the present review, distinguishing markers from other types of information, such as subject reports or conventional clinical data. We find the distinctions to be hazy. Next, from the standpoint of epidemiologists, we set out circumstances in which exposure markers might be needed, suggesting(More)
The effect of birth order on educational outcome in the Netherlands is reported for two major social classes, manual and non-manual. The rates of school failure (those who attended schools for the mentally retarded and who failed lower school) were studied in a population of some 200,000 young adult Dutch males born between 1944 and 1946 and whose families(More)
All 995 persons with Down's syndrome who died in the United States during 1976 and whose death certificates listed Down's syndrome as the underlying or a contributing cause of death were identified. This allowed the underlying causes of death of 793 affected persons to be analysed and compared to deaths in the whole US population for that year. Mortality(More)
The city of Warsaw was razed at the end of World War II and rebuilt under a socialist government whose policy was to allocate dwellings, schools, and health facilities without regard to social class. Of the 14,238 children born in 1963 and living in Warsaw, 96 percent were given the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test and an arithmetic and a vocabulary test(More)