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Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is an essential component of virus-activated signaling pathways that induce protective IFN responses. Its localization to the outer mitochondrial membrane suggests an important yet unexplained role for mitochondria in innate immunity. Here, we show that hepatitis A virus (HAV), a hepatotropic picornavirus,(More)
Three dimensional (3D) wireless sensor networks have attracted a lot of attention due to its great potential usages in both commercial and civilian applications. Topology control in 3D sensor networks has been studied recently. Different 3D geometric topologies were proposed to be the underlying network topologies to achieve the sparseness of the(More)
Oncogene activation in tumor cells induces broad and complex cellular changes that contribute significantly to disease initiation and progression. In melanoma, oncogenic BRAF(V600E) has been shown to drive the transcription of a specific gene signature that can promote multiple mechanisms of immune suppression within the tumor microenvironment. We show here(More)
With the aim of developing an efficient targeted delivery system for cancer therapy that overcomes drug leakage during circulation, we prepared a novel multifunctional dendrimeric carrier by integrating long hydrophobic C₁₂ alkyl chains, poly(ethylene glycol) chains and c(RGDfK) ligands presented on the surface. This dendrimer was able to tightly(More)
For retroviruses such as HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV), active receptor recruitment and trafficking occur during viral entry. However, the underlying mechanisms and cellular factors involved in the process are largely uncharacterized. The viral receptor for ecotropic MLV (eMLV), a classical model for retrovirus infection mechanisms and pathogenesis,(More)
Macrophages play important roles in the pathogenesis of various diseases, and are important potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, macrophages are key antigen-presenting cells and important in vaccine design. In this study, we report on the novel formulation (bovine serum albumin [BSA]-loaded glucan particles [GMP-BSA]) based on β-glucan particles from(More)
The structural relaxation of a glass forming liquid, methyl m-toluate, is studied in the deeply supercooled region near glass transition with the calorimetric and dielectric techniques. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the enthalpy relaxation are focused, and the kinetic studies are paralleled with dielectric relaxation. Relaxation enthalpies are(More)
The HIV-1 protease has proven to be a crucial component of the HIV replication machinery and a reliable target for anti-HIV drug discovery. In this study, we applied an optimized hierarchical multistage virtual screening method targeting HIV-1 protease. The method sequentially applied SVM (Support Vector Machine), shape similarity, pharmacophore modeling(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) wireless sensor networks have attracted a lot of attention due to their great potential usages in both commercial and civilian applications, such as environmental data collection, pollution monitoring, space exploration, disaster prevention, and tactical surveillance. Topology control in 3D sensor networks has been studied recently,(More)
EMMPRIN, a cell adhesion molecule highly expressed in a variety of tumors, is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Mechanistically, EMMPRIN has been characterized to contribute to tumor development and progression by controlling the expression of MMPs and VEGF. In the present study, by using fluorescently labeled bone marrow-derived cells(More)