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The neural pathways subserving the sensation of temperature are virtually unknown. However, recent findings in the monkey suggest that the sensation of cold may be mediated by an ascending pathway relaying in the posterior part of the thalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMpo). To test this hypothesis we examined the responses of neurons to thermal stimulation of(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventrolateral thalamus stops several forms of tremor. Microelectrode recordings in the human thalamus have revealed tremor cells that fire synchronous with electromyographic tremor. The efficacy of DBS likely depends on its ability to modify the activity of these tremor cells either synaptically by stopping afferent(More)
Methods for localizing the posteroventral globus pallidus intermus are described. The authors' techniques include the use of microelectrodes to record single-unit activity and to microstimulate in human pallidum and its surrounding structures. This technique allows a precise determination of the locations of characteristic cell types in sequential(More)
The human thalamus has been the focus of much interest as a target organ for the stereotactic surgical modification of particularly pain and movement disorders. The sites receiving the greatest attention are portions of Vc, Vim, Vop, and the medial thalamus. As such procedures require physiologic corroboration of target site, a considerable literature has(More)
High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the thalamus alleviates most kinds of tremor, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies in subthalamic nucleus and other brain sites have emphasized non-synaptic factors. To explore the mechanism underlying thalamic DBS, we simulated DBS in vitro by applying high-frequency (125 Hz) electrical stimulation(More)
OBJECT Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is beneficial for generalized dystonia and has been proposed as a treatment for cervical dystonia. The Canadian Stereotactic/Functional and Movement Disorders Groups designed a pilot project to investigate the following hypothesis: that bilateral DBS of the GPi will reduce the(More)
Axonal excitation has been proposed as a key mechanism in therapeutic brain stimulation. In this study we examined how high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of subcortical white matter tracts projecting to motor cortex affects downstream postsynaptic responses in cortical neurons. Whole cell recordings were performed in the primary motor cortex (M1) and ventral(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical dystonia (CD) produces involuntary neck muscle contractions that result in abnormal and often asymmetrical postures of the head and neck. Basal ganglia oscillatory activity in the 3-12 Hz band correlating with involuntary muscle activity suggests a role in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. Despite the asymmetrical postures seen(More)
Many amputees have a sense of their missing 'phantom' limb. Amputation can alter the representation of the body's surface in the cerebral cortex and thalamus, but it is unclear how these changes relate to such phantom sensations. One possibility is that, in amputees who experience phantom sensations, the region of the thalamus that originally represented(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is an effective treatment for generalized dystonia. Its role in the management of other types of dystonia is uncertain. Therefore we performed a prospective, single-blind, multicentre study assessing the efficacy and safety of bilateral GPi-DBS in 10 patients with severe, chronic,(More)