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H5N1 influenza A viruses are widely distributed among poultry in Asia, but until recently, only a limited number of wild birds were affected. During late April through June 2005, an outbreak of H5N1 virus infection occurred among wild birds at Qinghai Lake in China. Here, we describe the features of this outbreak. First identified in bar-headed geese, the(More)
We recently analyzed a series of H5N1 viruses isolated from healthy ducks in southern China since 1999 and found that these viruses had progressively acquired the ability to replicate and cause disease in mice. In the present study, we explored the genetic basis of this change in host range by comparing two of the viruses that are genetically similar but(More)
In the present study, we explored the genetic basis underlying the virulence and host range of two H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens. A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (GS/GD/1/96) is a highly pathogenic virus for chickens, whereas A/goose/Guangdong/2/96 (GS/GD/2/96) is unable to replicate in chickens. These two H5N1 viruses differ in sequence by only five amino(More)
During investigations into an outbreak of egg production decline, retarded growth, and even death among ducks in Southeast China, a novel Tembusu virus strain named Tembusu virus Fengxian 2010 (FX2010) was isolated. This virus replicated in embryonated chicken eggs and caused embryo death. In cross-neutralization tests, antiserum to the partial E protein of(More)
Since 2003, H5N1 influenza viruses have caused over 400 known cases of human infection with a mortality rate greater than 60%. Most of these cases resulted from direct contact with virus-contaminated poultry or poultry products. Although only limited human-to-human transmission has been reported to date, it is feared that efficient human-to-human(More)
The nucleoprotein (NP), which has multiple functions during the virus life cycle, possesses regions that are highly conserved among influenza A, B, and C viruses. To better understand the roles of highly conserved NP amino acids in viral replication, we conducted a comprehensive mutational analysis. Using reverse genetics, we attempted to generate 74(More)
Ten 3-month-old Tibetan mastiffs became ill 2 days after they were bought from a Tibetan mastiff exhibition, and 4 of them died 2 weeks later. A canine influenza virus (ZJ0110) was isolated from the lung of a deceased Tibetan mastiff and was characterized in detail. Sequence analysis indicated that the 8 genes of the canine isolate were most similar to(More)
To establish an accurate, rapid, and a quantifiable method for the detection of the newly emerged duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) that recently caused a widespread infectious disease in ducks in China, we developed a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay by using E gene-specific primers and a TaqMan probe. This real-time PCR assay was 100 times more sensitive than(More)
Up to now, most of the hypoxia markers contain only one nitroimidazole redox centre, such as Oxo[[3,3,9,9-tetramethyl-1-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,8-diazaundecane-2,10-dione dioximato] (3-)-N,N',N″,N″']-technetium ((99m)Tc-1, BMS181321). Introducing a second nitroimidazole redox centre may enhance the hypoxic accumulation of the markers. In the present(More)
A/chicken/Nanjing/908/2009(H11N2) (CK908) was isolated from a live poultry market in Nanjing, China. Using PCR and sequencing analysis, we obtained the complete genome sequences of the CK908 virus. The sequence analysis demonstrated that this H11N2 virus was a novel reassortant AIV whose PB1, PB2, PA, HA, NP, NA, M, and NS genes originated from H9N2, H7N7,(More)